Kazakh Ablai khan University of International Relations and World Languages Faculty of translation and philology Chair of English philology Independent work

Kazakh Ablai khan University of International Relations and World Languages Faculty of translation and philology Chair of English philology Independent work

Kazakh Ablai khan University of International Relations and World Languages Faculty of translation and philology Chair of English philology Independent work

Ministry of Education and Science of Republic of Kazakhstan

Kazakh Ablai khan University of International Relations and World Languages

Faculty of translation and philology

Chair of English philology

Independent work

Theme “Profile of Linguistic Community”

Done by: 202Group

Kali Madina

Checked by: Amirzhanova Gaukhar

Almaty 2014

German language- the language of Germans, Austrians , and more lihtenshteyntsev chastishveytsartsev , the official language of Germany , Austria, Liechtenstein , one of the official languages ​​of Switzerland , Luxembourg and Belgium . Is one of the most spoken languages ​​in the world after Chinese, Arabic , Hindi, English, Spanish, Bengali , Portuguese , Russian and Japanese . German - one of the official and working languages ​​of the European Union.

Refers to the Indo-European family of languages ​​( German branch). Script based on the Latin alphabet , supplemented by three vowels umlaut (ä, ö, ü) and ligature esthete (ß).

Historically German goes back to Proto-Germanic language, which , in turn, is an offshoot from the hypothetical PIE . Phonetic and morphological change language systems has led to its isolation from the related Germanic languages ​​. In the Middle Ages, is the formation of phonetics and morphology , syntax and lexical system of the German language . Modern German , whose history begins around the second half of the XVII century , otherwise referred novoverhnenemetskim language. A large role in its formation played Martin Luther translated the Bible , creativity famous German writers such as Johann Wolfgang von Goethe , Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock and Johann Christoph Gottshed , works by Johann CRYSTAF Adelunga , the Brothers Grimm and Conrad Dudena .

Modern literary German, High German arose on the basis of dialects , has a complex grammatical structure , due to historical processes of its formation .

In contrast to the literary language of the individual dialects (eg , Low German dialects or Swiss dialect) are not subjected to these processes , retaining the original system or changing it under the influence of other processes. As a result, this led to the fact that in Germany , in its various parts , Austria and Switzerland have formed my own German language, having the specific features of the phonetic , grammatical and lexical system.


 German dialects

 Low German and High German


All German dialects consist in the West German dialect continuum , which also includes the Dutch. On the territory of modern Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Luxembourg , Liechtenstein, Italy and the Netherlands are three major groups of dialects : Low German (Niederdeutsch), srednenemetskuyu (Mitteldeutsch) and South German (Oberdeutsch, the latter two groups is usually regarded as a part of High German dialects. Boundary between Lower and Upper German dialects is called a line Benrath . Individual national dialects and variants included in each of these groups are also distinct in addition to geographic differences of language , folding over time under the influence of cultural, geographical and historical factors . Thus, the features in phonetics and vocabulary Austrian and Swiss have options , which are characterized by different articulation of the initial p-, t-, k-, the use of foreign words in speech , and avstritsizmov gelvetsizmov and other features that are not characteristic of the literary German. As supradialectal forms , they nevertheless do not can be considered a break from the dialects - Bavarian and Alemannic , respectively.

Low German dialects

Low German dialect group (Niederdeutsch, Plattdeutsch) prevalent in northern Germany and the eastern part of the Netherlands. Lower Franconian dialects in the Netherlands are generally isolated as dialects of Dutch , but their historical connection with the German language does not allow to consider them a break from each other . [62] The list includes all the major dialects of this group without distinction of their distribution area . Lower Saxony , also called West Low German , Low German dialects and East Low German combined concept . Western dialects of the language differ from eastern primarily historically, phonetic rules and vocabulary , as dialects northeastern Germany in the Middle Ages were influenced by Slavic languages. East Low German dialects some space intersect with the east srednenemetsk dialects.

For example:

Dutch dialect ( niderl. Hollands, it . Holländisch) - Dutch dialect common in the historical region of Holland (North and South Holland) .

History .Originally a Dutch dialect descended from the North Sea ( ingveonskogo ) language that unites him with drevnefrizskim and Old English . In the XI century it has undergone the influence of the Frankish language . Vsrednem century Dutch strongly influenced by neighboring dialects , so in written sources of the XV century the Dutch language can not be called clean. Later there was a process of mixing of grammatical gender in Dutch , which influenced the development of its kind in modern Dutch.

In the XVI century , when formed literary Dutch, played an important role and it is Dutch Brabant dialects. It is for this reason informally called Dutch Dutch , and residents of the state Netherlands - Dutch. Speaking Dutch closest to the standard pronunciation, but it does the citizens of Haarlem and is considered the cleanest. In Belgium Speaking opposite strongly deviates from the rules because there are common Flemish, Brabant and Limburg dialect. In this case the State's territory is still prevalent in French. In Friesland there are places where there remains a Dutch dialect , despite the significant impact of the Frisian language .

Dutch dialect includes under dialects. Most of them belong to the lower ( for example, the South Dutch ), part of the Frisian more susceptible to influence ( Friesland dialects ) .

Yuzhnonemetsk dialects

South German group of dialects common in the southern part of Germany, Switzerland and Austria. The northern part of the South German space occupied eastern and southern Frankish dialects belonging to a large group of Frankish dialects , later subjected to the process of the second movement, continuing to the north- west to the Netherlands and Belgium. Accordingly, the western and eastern part is occupied by two of the largest group of the space - Alemannic and Bavarian dialects.

For example:

Vostochnofranksk dialects (German Ostfränkisch) - a group of German dialects belonging to the Frankish dialect of South German. There are several points of view as to how to classify vostochnofranksk Dialects: South German as exclusively or as . Vostochnofranksk often referred to simply as the Frankish dialects (which is wrong in terms of dialects , because the Frankish dialects common in the Netherlands and in the dissemination of Western dialects.

Vostochnofranksk (actually Frankish or Franconian ) dialects prevalent primarily in Bavaria ( district of Upper Franconia , Lower Franconia , Middle Franconia ), and in Thuringia ( in the south) , Baden- Wuerttemberg (north- east) and Hesse (east) .