Ex.1 Use the Past Simple Tense

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Ex. 3 Ask special questions.

1. She will make an apple cake for her friends 2. They will help the farmers to harvest in autumn. 3. The weather will probably change tomorrow. 4. The next term will begin in February. 5. The meeting will start when everybody comes. 6. It will take her a week to make a report 7. The students are going to plant many trees in the yard of the Institute. 8. They will go for a walk in the evening. 9. The train will arrive in half an hour. 10. The fanners will grow wheat on this field next spring.

Subordinate Clause of Time and Condition
In Subordinate Clauses of Time (when, as soon as, before, after, till/until, while) and Condition (if, unless, in case) Present Simple is used for a future action, while in the Main Clause Future Simple is used: e.g.: When the weather is fine, we shall go for a walk. If father comes early from his office, they will have time to play chess.

Ex. 4 Open the brackets using the verb in Present Simple or Future Simple.

1. Before you (to cross) the park, you (to come) to a supermarket 2. When you (to cross) the park, you (to see) the hospital. 3. If you (to translate) this article into Russian, I (to use) it in my report 4. If she (to be) in Moscow now, she (to meet) you at the railway station. 5. If it (to rain), we (not to go) to the country. 6. Where you (to go), when you (to come) to London? 7. Don't forget to pay for your dinner before you (to leave) the canteen. 8. I (not to have) dinner before mother (to come) home. 9. What you (to do) if you (not to finish) your homework tonight? 10. What he (to do) if his TV set (to break)?

D) Continuous Tenses

Stative Verbs (глаголы состояния)

are not normally used in Continuous Tenses because they don't describe actions.

thinking to believe, to think (считать, иметь мнение)*, to know, to understand, to Imagine, to mean
existence to be, to exist, to live
emotions to hate, to dislike, to love, to like, to need, to satisfy, to want, to desire
the human senses to hear, to see, to smell, to sound, to taste
appearance to appear, to look (выглядеть), to resemble, to seem
possession and relation between things to belong to, to consist of, to have (иметь)*, to Include, to own, to possess, to Involve

get up early. 11. It is late. 12. It is five minutes to eight 13. Was it far from here? 14. Is it funny? 15. Was it difficult to translate these sentences from Russian into English? 16. It is very far from here. 17. It is time to feed the cat.

Ex. 6 Translate the sentences from Russian Into English.

1. Сейчас утро. 2. На улице холодно. 3. Уже 10 часов утра. 4. Было приятно познакомиться с вашим другом. 5. Разве это не смешно? 6. Завтра будет тепло. 7. В аудитории прохладно. 8. Отсюда далеко? 9. Сейчас ранняя весна, но уже тепло. 10. Уже поздно, иди спать. 11. Сейчас час дня. 12. Осенью часто идут дожди. 13. Прошлой зимой было очень холодно. 14. Пора идти на прогулку.



1. General rule: noun + s books, tables, baths, paths
after -s, -ss. -x, -z. -sh, -ch, -tch, -o + es buses, glasses, boxes, benches, brushes, pota­toes But pianos, photos, videos, zoos
the nouns ending in -f, -fe —> -v+ es wife-wives knife-knives leaf- leaves But: roofs, scarfs, wharfs, chiefs
the nouns ending in -y preceded by a consonant -y —> -i + es fly-flies lady—ladies army—armies But days, boys, plays
2. Exceptions (changing the root vowel): man - men woman - women foot - feet tooth - teeth goose - geese mouse - mice
+ en ox - oxen child - children
In some nouns the plural form does not differ from the singular deer, sheep, swine, fish, dozen, score
Latin or Greek borrowed words phenomenon - phenomena datum - data crisis - crises formula - formulae index - indices bacterium - bacteria

Compound nouns:
a) + s to the head word editors-in-chief brothers-in-law group-mates
b) if there is no noun-stem -s is added to the last element forget-me-nots merry-go-rounds

Remember the nouns which are used only in singular!

money - деньги sugar — сахар

hair - волосы business - дело, бизнес

information - информация fruit - фрукты

progress - прогресс news — новость(и)

peace - мир love - любовь

knowledge - знание advice - совет(ы)

furniture -мебель luggage—багаж weather - погода

Remember the nouns which are used only in plural!

goods - товар(ы) clothes - одежда

riches-богатства thanks—благодарности

trousers - брюки scissors - ножницы

pliers - плоскогубцы spectacles - очки

shorts - шорты wages - зарплата

Ex. 1 Form the plural of the following nouns:

a baby, a tree, a factory, a church, a student, an exam, a map, a potato, a leaf, a dictionary, a wife, a king, a book, a mouse, a berry, a chief, a person, a tooth, a sheep, a fireman, a German, a mother-in-law, a merry-go-round, an ox, a swine, a watch, a forget-me-not, a photo, a family, a man, a crisis, a son-in-law, a fox, a country, a fisherman, a man-of-war.

Pay attention! this is - these are

That is - those are

There is — there are

It is - they are

Ex. 2 Form the plural of the following:

this factory this woman that leaf that knife

this child this mouse that baby that sheep

this play this roof that ox t hat hero

this school this lady that tooth that half

B) The Past Simple Tense

Ex.1 Use the Past Simple Tense.

1. They (to go) to the theatre last Sunday. 2. His father (to build) this house 4 years ago. 3. Kate (to buy) a new nice dress for her graduation ceremony yesterday. 4. My brother's friends (to play) football and (to win) the match last month. 5. It (to rain) heavily, so we (to stay) at home. 6. He (to be) 16 when his father (to teach) him to drive. 6. We (to see) many places of interest when we (to be) in Scotland. 7. I (not meet) anybody on my way home. 8. Yesterday Mike (to come) home later than usual. 9. She (to get up) at 10 o'clock as she (not have) lessons that day. 10. It (to take) him two weeks to solve the problems.

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