Ex.2. Choose the correct way of completing each sentence.

1. Do you remember (to go/going) to the bank last Monday?

2. It’s difficult (to make/making) long-term plans.

3. I remember (to meet/ meeting) your boss at the conference.

4. We’ve made an agreement (to work/working) together.

5. We usually avoid (to discuss/discussing) this subject.

6. You were stupid (to believe/believing) her.

7. He gave up the idea of (to hear/hearing) from his business partner.

8. She has an awful habit of (to interfere/interfering) in other people’s business.

9. This job is not worth (to take, taking).

10. The problem was too difficult (to solve, solving).

11. We are looking forward (to see/seeing) him.

12. I was fined for (to exceed/exceeding) the speed limit.

13. It’s no use (to explain/explaining) him our problem.

14. He couldn’t resist (to go/going) to see his new office.

Ex.3. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form (gerund or infinitive).

1. (Travel) across Europe is much more pleasant than (sit) in the office.

2. I have no intention of (accept) this invitation.

3. He made a lot of money by (trade) in the Stock Exchange.

4. I don’t feel like (work) today.

5. He apologized for (borrow) my computer without (ask) permission.

6. After (discuss) the problem for an hour the committee made a decision.

7. She was the last (leave) the office.

8. We thanked him for (solve) our problem so quickly.

9. I expected the boss (keep) his promise.

10. I wish (see) the senior manager.

11. He expects me (lend) him some money but I have no intention of (do) it.

12. He used (work) more efficiently when he was younger.

13. On (hear) the news he got very angry.

14. She avoided (speak) to the secretary.

15. A really prestigious job is worth (look) for.

Ex.4. Translate into English using a gerund or infinitive.

1. Мені прикро, що я запізнився.

2. Вона заперечувала, що вкрала гроші.

3. Всі знають, що наш бос дуже прогресивна людина.

4. Чи можу я покластися на те, що ви владнаєте цю справу?

5. Важко сказати, що він мав на увазі.

6. Я не розумію, чому він ухиляється від розмови про це.

7. Я з нетерпінням очікував на інтерв’ю.

8. Пізно сперечатися про це. Вже нічого не можна змінити.

9. Я пам’ятаю, що зустрічав його в вашому відділі.

10. Я не ризикнув запропонувати йому цю роботу.

11. Я наголошував на тому, щоб поговорити з президентом компанії.

12. Вашому босу не легко догодити.

13. Він зацікавився працівником, який відповідає за складання фінансових звітів на фірмі.

14. Єдине, що вам потрібно зробити – це скласти бізнес-план.

15. Я пам’ятаю, що бачив цю рекламу в газеті.

Speech and Discussion

Ex.1. Your boss has asked you to make a short speech about the WTO. Make a draft of what you intend to say.

Ex.2. Discuss the benefits for Ukraine from joining the World Trade Organization.

Ex.3. Familiarize yourself with the following idioms, consult your dictionary and translate the sentences into Ukrainian. Think of situations where you could use them.

1. She had kittens when she found out her company was bankrupt.

2. He has no imagination. He can’t see beyond the end of his nose.

3. He isn’t worth his wages; it’s time we gave him the elbow.

4. He is a great hand at giving advice, but when it comes to doing some work, he is not so good.

5. I’d love to take a holiday with you but I am tied hand and foot to my business.

Ex.4. Comment on the following:

“Negotiation is a game. A serious one but still a game.”

(Gary Karrass)

Lesson 4

Text: Business across Cultures

Grammar: The Participle

Terms to remember:

do’s and don’ts ™ правила поведінки
spell out (v) ™ розшифровувати; пояснювати точно
superior ™ начальник, старший
bow (v) ™ кланятися
patience ™ терпіння, терплячість
gift ™ подарунок
acceptable ™ прийнятний
embarrasment ™ збентеження; розгубленість; замішання
tip ™ чайові; невеликий грошовий подарунок
bill ™ рахунок (за послуги, товар, тощо)
custom ™ звичай
cause offence to smb (v) ™ образити (скривдити) когось
be offended (v) ™ бути ображеним

Business across Cultures

Before doing business abroad it is important to understand the social and business culture of a country in which you are going to operate. The following are just a few of do’s and don’ts for business people visiting a foreign country:

s In the USA, it is polite to look people in the eye, to offer your hand, and to smile;

s In France people shake hands much more than Americans or most Europeans; if you fail to shake hands, you may be considered rude;

s In Japan and Korea bowing, rather than shaking hands, is usual behaviour;

s In Turkey, your coat should be buttoned when you are with superiors;

s Never discuss business over dinner in France;

s Don’t pass documents with the left hand in Saudi Arabia;

s Don’t expect written contracts in most Moslem countries;

s Don’t expect the contract with South Korean businessmen to spell out all the details. Written contracts are typically documents that change as conditions do;

s In Japan it’s very important to get everyone’s opinion. Patience is a prime factor in their culture. They also avoid saying “no” directly;

s Offer gifts in Japan. The Japanese enjoy giving and receiving beautifully presented gifts;

s Do not bring liquour to an Arab house. For many Arabs, alcohol is forbidden by religious law;

s In China expensive presents are not acceptable and cause great embarrassment. Give a collective gift from your company to theirs;

s In British restaurants a tip is included in the bill. In some Mediterranean countries, such as Greece and Spain, the customer is expected to pay a little extra for satisfactory service;

s Don’t criticize royalty in Great Britain;

s In Arab countries, don’t admire an object openly. The owner may feel obligated to give it to you.

s Thus, if you are aware of the customs of the country you are visiting, you will not cause offence or be offended.

Exercises in Word Study

Ex.1. Form nouns from the following verbs:

fail, consider, behave, avoid, embarrass, criticize, expect, offend, admire.