VII. Complete the dialogue between two people:
A. - Nowadays more and more I start thinking about improving my qualification, but what embarrasses me most of all is my age and the difficulty of returning to student life.
B. - Oh, that mustn't bother you. You may take up any course you like at the Open University. I think you know about the advantages of open learning system ...
(From "Individual Psychology" by Patricia H. Elkins)
Individual Education (IE) is a new concept in schooling. The basic premise of IE is that education is a privilege and not an obligation. An I E: school directs but does not demand, leads but does not drive, persuades but doesn't force, suggests but does not require. John Holt suggests that an alternative to authoritarian systems is to have schools in which each child can satisfy curiosity, develop abilities and talents, pursue interests, and obtain from adults and older children a glimpse of the great variety of richness of life.
Objectives of Individual Education
The objectives of IE are: 1) to generate motivation to learn the academic curriculum and to provide alternative ways of learning these subjects; 2) to offer guidance about how to best proceed in various ways of learning the academic curriculum; 3) to provide testing of learning at frequent intervals; 4) to provide opportunities for supervised social interaction with other individuals; 5) to provide opportunities to learn a variety of non-academic subjects.
The academic Curriculum in an Individual Education school includes the usual elements such as language, arts, arithmetic, science and social sciences.
The creative curriculum is a special means of fostering resourcefulness by helping the child locate and develop special talents and abilities. Teachers and students are invited to submit ideas for classes of special interest. Creative courses can motivate and reinforce learning in the academic subjects; to build a tree house or bake cookies, one must be able to read and measure.
The socialization process is aided in an IE school through the concept of discipline, in the homeroom, and through advisement by the teacher/advisors. Education is seen as a voluntary association with equals that creates an atmosphere of mutual respect and regard.
IE has three rules that the child must understand, and agreey1 to follow before being admitted to an IE school. After a third violation a child attends a conference with his teacher/advisor (ТА) and the school principal; after the sixth violation the parents of the child are brought into the conference session; suspension occurs after the ninth and to the eleventh violation; and after the twelfth violation the child is considered for expulsion. Expulsion or suspension is rare at IE schools because students eventually realize that they have little need to rebel in the school.
Advising is a function of every faculty member in IE school. The child chooses his teacher/advisor by petition. The TA's role is to listen, offer help and advice, give information, and allow the child freedom to make decisions and even to make mistakes.
Advantages of IE
The educators list six advantages of IE schools:
1) Children learn more academically in less time.
2) Children like this kind of school.
3) Schools are orderly and disciplined.
4) Children get a better education for life.
5) Teachers prefer teaching in IE schools.
6) Parents prefer IE to traditional schools.
1. Find in the text the English for:
обязанность, любознательность, цель, руководство, социальное общение, особое средство, изобретательность (находчивость), выдвигать идеи, добровольный, взаимоуважение, нарушение, временное прекращение, исключение, выбирать кого-л. по просьбе, предоставлять свободу, принимать решения, делать ошибки.
II. Form the derivatives from:
educate, resource, curious, guide, foster, create, motivate, choice, socialize, advise, violate, admit, inform, able, decide.
III. Arrange A and В in pairs of synonyms:
A. to break the rule, to lead, to require, abilities, talent, to obtain, an objective, curriculum, to foster, to aid, advisor, respect, principal, to occur, to realize, to guide.
B. headmaster, to understand, to lead, to violate, to take place, capacities, to get, syllabus, tutor, to regard, to demand, purpose, gift, to instil, to help, to direct.
IV. Arrange A and В in pairs of antonyms:
A. children, advantage, voluntary, best, various, to include, respect, admission, frequent, little.
B. compulsory, much, to exclude, adults, worst, disadvantage, disregard, rare, expulsion, identical.
V. Answer the following questions:
1) What is the basic premise of individual education?
2) How does John Holt describe IE schools?
3) What are the objectives of IE?
4) What academic subjects are included in the curriculum of an Individual Education school?
5) In what way can the creative abilities of students be developed?
6) How is the socialization process aided in an IE school?
7) IE creates an atmosphere of mutual regard and respect, doesn't it? In what way?
8) Are there any punishments for violation in an IE school? What are they?
9) Why do you think that expulsion and suspension are rare in such schools?
10) How do children choose their teachers?
11) What is the teacher's role in an IE school?
12) What are the six advantages of IE schools?
13) Do you think that children enjoy studying at such schools and why?
VI. Find the terms that correspond to the following definitions:
1) A school in which each child can satisfy curiosity, develop abilities and talents.
2) The aims which an IE school pursue.
3) To advise about how to best proceed in various ways of learning the academic curriculum.
4) Children's communication (contacts) with other individuals.
5) When people respect each other.
6) The process of breaking rules.
7) The head of the school.
8) The strong points of IE.