IRead thetext and answer yourteachers questions.


An endangered species, the giant panda can only be found in the mountain bamboo forests of Western China. There are only about 1,000 wild giant pandas left in the world. Giant pandas are members of the bear family, and they are mammals. Even though giant pandas look just like bears, they certainly do not behave like bears. Unlike their meat-eating relatives, giant pandas are vegetarians for the most part of their time. Their favourite food is bamboo. Giant pandas must eat a lot of bamboo everyday to get enough nourishment. In fact, they spend at least 12 hours everyday eating about 33 pounds of bamboo. However, if they are extremely hungry and bamboo is nowhere to be found, giant pandas may eat grass, fruits, or sometimes, small animals like chicken.

Giant pandasdo notlive ingroups.They areloners!They onlyleave theirterritoryfrom Marchto Mayto lookfor amate.Femalegiantpandasusuallygive birthto twins.Baby giantpandas arevery small,blind,pinkish,and weighabout 5ounces atbirth.Strangely,mothergiantpandas tendto chooseto raisejust onebaby andleave theother todie. Mothergiantpandas feedtheirbabies withmilk. Ababy giantpanda opensits eyesat sixto sevenweeks. Itstarts tolearn howto walkwhen itis aboutthree orfour monthsold. Mothergiantpandas lookafter theirbabies forabout 18months.Once theyoung isstrongenough, itbidsfarewell toits motherand movesout toliveindependently.


  1. Where do pandas live?

  2. What class of animals do they belong to?

  3. What is the main difference between giant pandas and bears?

  4. Why do young giant pandas leave their mothers when they are about 18 months?

  5. Are there any other endangered species in the world? What are they?

II Read the text and say why toxicomania is a great problem nowadays. Speak about another teenage problems.


Such products as glue, butane gas, solvents are made on solvent base. That is why they can be used for sniffing and then receiving post effects of visual hallucinations.

Solvents are usually commercial products, like glue, nail polish remover, aerosols, gas lighter fuel and petrol, which give off a vapour. When the vapour is inhaled, it can make you feel light-headed, happy, dizzy. The effects can last up to an hour, depending on what, and how much was inhaled. Solvents are depressant drugs.

It is estimated that one of five young people in Britain have used solvents. It is the second most commonly used drug for this age group. Talking about our country, there is no exact statistics concerning this fact, but it is not a secret that the number of «sniffers» is growing and yet has reached a tremendous index. It happens, because such substances are the most available and cheap.

Solvent use is extremely dangerous. Nobody knows exactly how many children die in our country, because of solvent addiction. In Great Britain it is prohibited to sell solvent-based products to children under 18s. It is illegal there. Here, in our country, there is no such legislation concerning this problem, which is becoming worse day after day.


  1. Why can solvents be used for receiving post effects of visual hallucinations?

  2. What are solvents?

  3. What are the effects of sniffing solvents?

  4. Why is the the number of «sniffers» growing in our country?

  5. Why is there a risk of suffocation for people sniffing solvents?

III Speaktoyourteacher.Youbegintheconversation.

You want to do a course of English at a language school. You are phoning a language school to find out about the courses they offer. Ask questions about the location of the language school, how long the courses are, how much the courses cost, what is necessary to do to register for the courses.


P: Hello, may I speak to the school secretary, please?

T: Speaking. Anne Rostron, Winchester School of English. Can I help you?

P: Yes, please. This is ..., a student from Moscow. I'd like some information about your summer courses, please.


P: Well, first how long are the courses?

T: In the summer, we offer four-week courses.

P: Yes, where exactly is your school?

T: Well, we're only two minutes away from the beach. Our town is in the centre of the South of England. We have direct public transport from London and airports. It's very easy to visit Stonehenge, Oxford and Bath from here.

P: That sounds good. Mm, how much do the courses cost?

T: They cost from £850, depending on what type of accommodation you choose.

P: Just one more thing. May I get your advice on how best to apply for the courses?

T: Certainly. Just give me your name and address. We'll send you a brochure and application form.

P: My name is ...................................... and my address is ... ………………………………………………………….

T: Thanks. You have to fill in the application form and send it with the deposit of £150.

P: Thank you for the information.


IRead thetext and answer yourteachers questions.


English is spoken as a first language by several countries including Great Britain, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Canada, and the United States. While all of these countries share the same mother tongue, there are some differences in the way they speak and write.

The first difference is in the accent. Each country has its own accent. And within each country there are a variety of accents called regional accents.

Another differenceis thespelling ofsome words,like‘colour’ and‘colour’,or‘theater’ and‘theatre’.

And a third difference is that some of the words are not the same at all. For example, Americans say restroom, Canadians say washroom, and the British say W.C. (water closet.) But all of these words have the same meaning (the room where the toilet is located.)

So which English is the best English to learn? Well, there is no best English. They are all equally good and correct. But two things may help you decide which one is best for you to study.

First of all, where do you live? If you are from South America, for example, you will probably have more exposure to North American English. If you live in Europe, most likely you will be more exposed to British English.

But nomatterwhere youstudyEnglish orwhetherit'sBritish,American,Australian,orwhatever,it's goodto knowa littleaboutEnglish inothercountries.


  1. Where is English spoken as a first language?

  2. What are some differences in the way people speak and write in these countries?

  3. What can help a person from another country decide which English is best for him (her)?

  4. Which English is taught at school: British English or American English?

  5. Do you know any other words which are different in British English and American English?

II Read the text and say what influence make drugs on people’s health? What are another bad habits do you know? Speak about one of them.


More people are abusing drugs today than in any other time in history of mankind, and many of those people are youth.

Understanding what drugs are is fundamental for understanding their potential abuse. Drugs are a psychoactive substance.

A psychoactive substance is something that people take to change the way they feel, think or behave. Some of these substances are called drugs and others, like alcohol and tobacco, are considered dangerous, but are not called drugs. The term drug also covers a number of substances that must be used under medical supervision to treat illnesses.

In the past, most drugs were made from plants. That is, plants were grown and then converted into drugs such as coca paste, opium and marijuana. Over the years, these crude products were further processed to drugs like cocaine and heroin and finally, in the 20th century, people found out how to make drugs from chemicals.

These are called man-made or synthetic drugs and include ecstasy, LSD, etc. These were initially manufactured for largely experimental reasons and only later were used for recreational purposes. Now, however, with the increased size and scope of the drug trade, people set out to invent drugs especially for human consumption.

For the first time in human history, a whole industrial complex creates and produces drugs that are meant to be used for the sole purpose of «having fun.» People use drugs just to escape the reality, to have fun. The majority of them are young, even very young, who do not understand what might happen to them because of drugs.


  1. What is fundamental to understand the essence of drugs?

  2. What are drugs?

  3. What is a psychoactive substance?

  4. What kind of drugs do you know?

  5. What naturally occurring drugs do you know?

  6. What synthetic drugs do you know?

  7. Why do people use drugs?

IIISpeak to your teacher.You begin theconversation.

You and your foreign friend, who is on a short visit in Moscow, are discussing what you are going to do at the weekend. Ask him/her when he/she isn`t busy, what he/she would like to do during his stay in Moscow, why.


P: What are you doing ?

T: Nothing special.

P: Let's go to the pictures.

T: That would be wonderful! What shall we see?

P: I think the best thing is to go and see "…………………………………………………………………..".

T: I've heard about this film.

P: Yes, ………………………………………………………… is the film director. It's a marvelous film about ………………………………………..

T: I'd love to see it. What do you think, where shall we buy tickets?

P: I think we'll get them there.

T: Then, I guess we might as well.


IRead thetext and answer yourteachers questions.

THANKSGIVINGDAY InternetPublicLibrary

The story of America’s Thanksgiving begins with the Pilgrims. Early in the 17-th century, the Pilgrims left England in search of religious freedom. In 1608, they sailed to Holland. Then, in 1620, they crossed the Atlantic by ship called the Mayflower.

After sailing for many weeks, the Pilgrims landed at a place now called Massachusetts. They planted the seeds they had brought from England. But the seeds didn’t grow well, and there was so little food for the Pilgrims that many of them starved to death.

Luckily for the Pilgrims, some nearby Indians came to rescue. They taught the Pilgrims to grow native food such as corn. Without this help, the Pilgrims would not have survived.

After the first harvest, the governor of Plymouth Colony - William Bradford - suggested that the Pilgrims hold a feast of thanksgiving. And to their thanksgiving feast the Pilgrims invited the Indians. The Pilgrims were grateful to the Indians for helping the Colony survive. In addition, they hoped that the celebration would strengthen their friendship with the Indians.

Nobody knows the date of the first Thanksgiving feast. But we do know that the Pilgrims and Indians enjoyed a huge feast of deer, goose, duck, oyster, eel, bread, fruit, and corn meal pudding.

In 1789 George Washington declared that Thanksgiving would be a national celebration. It is celebrated on the fourth Thursday in November.


  1. When did the Pilgrims cross the Atlantic Ocean?

  2. Who taught them to grow native food?

  3. How did the Pilgrims thank the Indians?

  4. Why did the Pilgrims leave England?

  5. What other American holidays do you know?

II Read the text and comment on the situation described in the text. Speak about other mortal diseases.


AIDS is an acronym for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome and is thought to be caused primarily by a virus that invades white blood cells (lymphocytes) and certain other body cells including the brain.

Although treatments for both AIDS and HIV exist to slow the virus' progression in a human patient, there is no known cure. The rate of clinical disease progression varies widely between individuals and has been shown to be affected by many factors such as host susceptibility.

AIDS is thought to have originated in sub-Saharan Africa during the twentieth century and is now a global epidemic.

In 1983 and 1984, French and U.S. researchers independently identified the virus believed to cause AIDS as an unusual type of slow-acting retrovirus now called « human immunodeficiency virus » or HIV. Like other viruses, HIV is basically a tiny package of genes. But being a retrovirus, it has the rare capacity to copy and insert its genes right into a human DNA.

In essence, HIV viruses do not kill people, they merely render the immune system defenceless against other infections, e.g. yeast invasions, toxoplasmosis, cytomegalovirus, massive herpes infections, special forms of pneumonia that kill in half of all AIDS patients.

That is AIDS. There are several types of AIDS. No one has been cured up to the present moment.


  1. What is AIDS?

  2. Is AIDS very contagious disease in comparison with other viruses?

  3. Where did AIDS originated from?

  4. Who and when identified the virus?

  5. Does HIV kill the carrier instantly?

IIISpeak to your teacher.You begin theconversation.

You and your foreign friend, who is on a short visit in Moscow, are going on an excursion. Discuss when and where it would be better to go; who you’d invite to go with you.


P: Thanks, I'd love to. How about visiting Red Square and the Kremlin? I can book tickets to the Diamond Exhibition.

T: That would be lovely. But is it far from Red Square?

P: The Diamond Exhibition is housed in the Armoury building inside the Kremlin.

T: Oh, I see.

P: You can invite Laura to go with us. She'll enjoy seeing the collection of diamonds, especially the Imperial Crown with its red spinel and thousands of diamonds.

T: That's a great idea. She's nuts about jewels.


T: Yes, 9 o'clock on Saturday.

P: See you then.


IRead thetext and answer yourteachers questions.


What do the following animals have in common: pandas, rhinoceros, loggerhead turtles, Californian condors, pink pigeons, small tooth sawfish, and Siberian sturgeons? They are all endangered animals! Animals become endangered for a variety of reasons. Sadly, humans are behind every one of them! Here are three reasons.

Hunting:forcenturies,humans havehuntedelephantsfor theirimpressivetusks,killedtigers fortheirbeautifulfurs, andscooped upsturgeonsto makecaviar.While westill haveelephants,tigers, andsturgeonsin thewild, wecannot saythe sameabout manyothers thathave simplydisappeared!

Loss ofhabitats:humans andanimalshave alwayscompetedfor landand othernaturalresources.We clearan areaof aforest forfarming. Wecut downtrees andbuildbeautifulhouses. Atthe sametime thatwe aretrying tomake ourlifecomfortable,weinadvertentlydestroy thehabitats ofwildanimals.

Pollution:more thanonce wehave seenontelevisionsthat rescueworkers aretrying tosaveseabirdssoaked inspilledoil. Morethan oncewe haveheard abouthow carbondioxide andother gaseshave raisedthe Earthtemperatureand causedglobalwarming.Pollutionhas alonglasting,and usuallyirreversible,effect. Ifwe chooseto donothing andcontinue topollute ourplanetEarth, ournextgenerationswill haveto beartheconsequencesof abnormalweather andpollutedenvironment.


  1. Can you give any examples of endangered animals?

  2. Why do people hunt animals?

  3. How do we destroy the habitats of wild animals?

  4. What can we do to save rare species?

  5. What environmental organizations and groups do you know? Would you like to become a member of such a group?

II Read the text and say if the problems in Russian families are different or the same. Speak about your family.

FamilyProblems BBCnews

Father leaves for work in the morning after breakfast. The two children take the bus to school, and mother stays at home cooking and cleaning until father and the kids return home in the evening. This is the traditional picture of a happy family living in Britain. But is it true today? The answer is - no!

The biggest change has been caused by divorce. The large rise in divorces has meant many women need to work to support themselves and their children. In addition, women are no longer happy to stay at home raising children, and many have careers earning as much as or even more than men. Although it is difficult to be a working mother, it has become normal and it's no longer seen as a bad thing for the children.


  1. What is the traditional picture of a happy family from Britain?

  2. Why do women have to work?

  3. How many people are there in your family? Who are they?

  4. Does your mother work? What is she?

  5. Do you get on well with your brother (sister)?

  6. Do you sometimes argue with your parents? What about?

  7. Do you help your parents about the house? What do you usually do?

  8. Have you got any traditions in your family? Speak about them.

IIISpeak to your teacher.You begin theconversation.

You are to write an article on environmental problems for your school English Magazine.

You and the editor of the magazine are discussing what problems to mention in the article,

what title for the article to choose, and when the article must be published.


P: I should write the article about the protection of environment for our school magazine. Could you help me in the matter?

T: Willingly. I'll do all my best.

P: So. What problems should I put sharply in the press?

T: Today our environment is in serious danger. Air and water pollution are the problems that threaten human life on Earth.

P: To my mind I must add some decisions about how to solve these problems.

T: Quite right. It's not too late to solve them. We have the time, the money and even the technology to make our planet better and safer.

P: What do you think about the article's title "Let's save our planet"?

T: I completely agree with it. It's a good title.

P: When should I take my article to print?

T: In 3 days

P: Thanks a lot.


IRead thetext and answer yourteachers questions.


Mary Elizabeth loved music. She was happy when she heard lovely sounds. She waited to hear the birds sing outside her window in the spring. She listened for the cricket's song when she swept the hearth in her mother's kitchen. The horses passing her papa's store made a "clip clop" sound. That was a song to Mary Elizabeth. These songs made her heart fill with joy.

Mary Elizabeth had only one wish. She wanted to make music on her own. She couldn't sing very well. Her brother, Matthew, had said, "You sound like the cat when Nana stepped on its tail." She loved music so much. Why couldn't she make music on her own?

Mary Elizabeth knew where to go when she was sad. Her Uncle Ben Franklin could always make her smile. Best of all, Uncle Ben loved music just like Mary Elizabeth. One morning, Mary Elizabeth stood outside Uncle Ben's workshop. She could hear him humming to himself. She knew something fun was going to happen. She opened the door and saw Uncle Ben at his work table. Oh, no! What had happened? Broken glasses were everywhere. There were big glasses, little glasses, and middle sized glasses spread out on his table. Wait a minute. Only the stems that held the glasses up were broken off. What was Uncle Ben doing? Uncle Ben saw the puzzled look on Mary Elizabeth's face. "Come, little songbird," he said. "I will show you how we can make beautiful music. We will use what is broken. We can turn it into something good."


  1. What sounds did Mary Elizabeth enjoy?

  2. What was her only wish?

  3. Who made her smile and laugh when she was upset?

  4. What did Mary hear while she was standing outside her uncle’s workshop?

  5. Why was Mary puzzled when she opened the door and look at his table?

II Read the text and say what influence make smoking on people’s health? What are another bad habits do you know? Speak about one of them.


Smoking is the best way to bad health. Today half the men and a quarter of the women in the world smoke on the average.

Some people think that there is not much sense in refraining from smoking, since the inhabitants of many cities and even villages breathe air contaminated with industrial and automobile wastes. They are very wrong. Vehicle exhaust gases are harmful in themselves, but a smoking driver is subjected to something far more dangerous.

Take another example: according to WHO (World Health Organisation) figures, the sick rate is higher among smoking workers of the heavy engineering, chemical, ceramic, mining, building, cement and rubber industries.

The harm of tobacco smoke on women should be especially emphasized. In particular, smoking may affect the course of pregnancy. Smoking women may bring into the world crippled or abnormal children.

The evidence that exposure to other people's smoke is dangerous to health is now incontrovertible. The exposure to secondhand smoke is a serious health risk to non-smokers, increasing their chance of contracting lung cancer and heart disease. The degree of risk depends on the extent and duration of exposure. Particularly there is a high risk among workers in the hospitality industries (bar staff, casino workers and other employees in workplaces where smoking is routine). It is estimated that secondhand smoke causes one premature death a week.


  1. How many people do smoke in the world today?

  2. What are the industries where the sick rate among smoking workers is higher?

  3. Where is risk among workers exposed to secondhand smoking particularly high?

  4. What measures have been taken to reduce smoking in the past few years?

  5. What has been done to prevent smoking among schoolchildren?


As the winners of a contest, your class was rewarded a grant. Explain to a foreign journalist why you were given a grant, who was the grant given by, and what you are going to spend it on.


P: Come in, please. This is our English classroom.

T: It's very nice. Can I ask you some questions?

P: Yes, please. Would you like to take a seat here?

T: Thank you. Did your school take part in the competition?

P: That's right. As you know, there is a program of the Russian government called the National Priority Projects. One of the projects focuses on education...

T: I see. There are competitions held within the National Project 'Education'.

P: Yes. Our school took part in the competition as an innovative school in our district and won 1 million rubles.

T: My congratulations! What will the prize be used for?

P: Thank you. The money will go to repair work of the school building. Then we have plans to buy more computers and an Interwrite Board.


IRead thetext and answer yourteachers questions.


Shopping on the Internet, or shopping on-line is becoming more and more popular. More and more people are using the internet to buy things. Why do people use the Internet to shop? Some people say it is more convenient. They don't have to leave their homes to order something, and they can shop for anything they want at any time, day or night. Other people say they can find things for sale that they can't find in the stores near their homes. Still other people say they can find better prices on the Internet.

If you want to buy something on the Internet, you need a credit card. You have to type your credit card number and information on the website and send it to the store over the Internet. You have to be sure that the store will not use your information in the wrong way. You don't want someone to get your credit card number and charge something to your account. Of course, you always have to be careful with your credit card number, because people sometimes steal credit card numbers from stores and restaurants too.

For people who are too nervous to shop on-line, the Internet is a good place to go window-shopping. Window-shopping is when you go to a store and look at the things for sale, but don't plan to buy anything. Window-shopping is easy on the Internet. You can see what kinds of products are available and how much they cost. You can visit stores with branches near you, or you can visit stores that are only on the Internet.


  1. Why do people use the Internet to shop?

  2. What do you need to do the shopping on line?

  3. Why do people have to be careful making a purchase via the Internet?

  4. What is window-shopping?

  5. Can you go window-shopping on the Internet?

II Read the text and say how people can be healthy. Speak about traditional food in Russia.


All food is made up of nutrients which our bodies use. There are different kinds of nutrients: carbohydrates, proteins, fats» vitamins and minerals. Different foods contain different nutrients.

Before we cut down on fat, sugar and salt, we have to know a bit more about the kind of food these things might be in. The biggest problem comes when these things are hidden in other foods: biscuits, crisps, sausages, meat pies, soft drinks and so on.

More and more people feel strongly about the way, their food is produced. Nowadays so much of the basic food we eat — meat, fish, fruit and vegetables — is grown using chemicals and additives.

The food we eat, depends on lots of things. Taste is a big factor. Culture, religion and health also play a part in what food we eat. Advertising and social factors also have a big influence.

Finally, there are three main messages to follow for healthy eating:

First, we should eat less fat, particularly saturated fat.

Secondly, we are to cut down on sugar and salt.

Thirdly, we must eat more fresh fruit and vegetables.


  1. What nutrients do you know?

  2. What are the main things to know about food we eat?

  3. What fats are good?

  4. What fats are dangerous for our health?

  5. What are the main factors that determine the food we eat?

IIISpeak to your teacher.You begin theconversation.

Your friend has just returned from an English-speaking country. Ask him about the places of interest he/she was able to see there, and which of them he/she was impressed by.


P: Hello! I haven't seen you for a long time. How are you

T: I'm Ok. Thanks. I've just returned from journey.

P: Oh, great! Where have you been?

T: I've visited the capital of the UK - London.

P: Did you like it?

T: Sure! It's one of the largest ports in the UK. Besides, London is a great educational and

cultural center.

P: What did you see there? What did you impress most of all?

T: I was impressed by (with) its magnificent sightseeing, esp-ly with the Tower of


P: Why?

T: You see, this sight has a long history. The ravens are also a part of its history.

There is a legend that if the ravens disappear the British monarchy will fall.

That's why they are carefully guarded.

Card 7

IRead thetext and answer yourteachers questions.


At the start of the twentieth century the idea of women in business seemed crazy. In those days men held all the positions of power and made all the decisions about money. They believed that a woman` s place was at home, looking after her children, cooking for her family and managing the house. If a woman needed to work she could perhaps find a job in a shop or in a factory, but she had no chance of working as a businesswoman or a banker, or a lawyer.

Women` s fashions in the USA and Europe at that time supported their position in society. Fashionable women wore long dresses that almost touched the ground. This made it difficult for them to drive a car, ride a horse or even walk quickly.

But many women were not happy with their position in society, and they didn’t like the clothes they had to wear. One of those people was a French woman called Gabrielle ‘Coco’ Chanel. When she went into business in 1910, she planned to change clothes that women wore. But over the next sixty years she did much more than that, as she became the richest and the most successful businesswoman.

Coco Chanelhad noexperienceof businesswhen sheopened herfirst hatshop inParis in1910. Shewas onlytwenty-sevenyears oldand shecame froman ordinaryfamily. Many ofCoco’scustomersin herfirst shopwere heryoung womenfriends.They lovedthe simplebutbeautifulhats anddressesthat Cocomade forthem, andsoonher shopstarted todo well.


  1. 1 What were a woman’s opportunities in business?

  2. 2 What did fashionable women use to wear?

  3. 3 Why didn’t` all women like the style of clothes which were in fashion at that time?

  4. 4 How did Coco Chanel start her business?

  5. 5 Why did Coco Chanel become famous all over the world?

II Read the text and say if the overpopulation is a problem for our planet nowadays. Why? Speak about population in Russia.


The world's population is an important issue. For hundreds of thousands of years, the human population grew at a low but steadily increasing rate. Then, in less than last 200 years, the world population went from several hundreds of millions to more than 6 billion people.

The Earth has certain limitations and in particular, there are limits to growth of things that consume the Earth resources.

Overpopulation is like a big magnifying glass making little problems into big ones.

Overpopulation is destroying our environment, lowering the standard of living, and generally degrading the quality of life.

Overpopulation also causes more violence, environmental pollution that reflects on land degradation, tropical forest destruction, global warming and destruction of coral reefs. 6 billion member society has to get a huge food infrastructure, so society start producing genetically made food, which is cheaper than ordinary one but might reflect in the nutrient balance. For example, in China it is prohibited to have more than one child for a couple. There is a very dangerous situation in India. By the year 2025 its population might reach 1.5 billion people.

The planet urgently needs population control. Birth control, abortion and quotas need to be supported, if the planet is to remain habitable in the long term.


  1. How many people live on the Earth today?

  2. Why is overpopulation an important issue?

  3. Does overpopulation hurt our environment?

  4. Is it prohibited to have more than three children for a couple in China?

  5. How much time does it take to double the Earth's population?

  6. How many people might live in India by the year 2025?

IIISpeak toyourteacher.Youbegintheconversation.

You’re on an excursion abroad. You’ve got lost in a city. Ask a passer-by how you can get to the hotel you’re staying at; which is the fastest and the most convenient means of the city transport, how long it will take you to get to the hotel.


P: Excuse me. I'm a tourist. Unfortunately I left from my group during excursion,

T: Yes, can I help you?

P: Could you tell me the way to the hotel?

T: Well, you can take a tube or a bus.

P: And what way is the quickest to the hotel?

T: I think, you'd better take the tube.

P: Thank you. How long will it take you to get there?

T: About 15 minutes.

P: Is there a tube station near here?

T: Yes. It's at the corner.

P: Thanks a lot.

T: You're welcome.


I Readthe textand answer your teachersquestions.


Edinburgh is the capital city of Scotland. It is the second-largest city in the nation with the population of 448,624. It is located in the east of the country, just seventy kilometres apart from Glasgow, the first largest city of Scotland. Though the two cities are equally famous, Edinburgh has long established itself as the more popular tourist destination and there are many reasons for this.

The city of Edinburgh is divided into two areas, the Old Town (its historical centre) and the New Town (the city’s main shopping and commercial area). The Old Town includes picturesque streets, monuments and many wonderful cathedrals and churches. The most famous landmark of Edinburgh is Edinburgh Castle. The castle is open to the public and includes a number of museums too.

The New Town was first developed in the late 1700s. In its centre is Georges Street, and the city’s two main shopping areas Princes Street and Queens Street. The city contains many museum, public parks, markets, cafes, bars restaurants and has something really special to offer all its visitors.

Every yearEdinburghhosts anumber ofmajorfestivals,none morefamous thantheEdinburghInternationalFestival,which takesplace fromAugust toearlySeptember.Thefestivalattractsperformersandaudiencesfrom allover theworld andoffers amixture oftheatre,films,music andcomedyamongstotherthings.


  1. How far is Edinburgh from Glasgow?

  2. What places of interest is there in Edinburg?

  3. When was the New Town developed?

  4. What does Edinburgh host every year?

  5. Why is Edinburgh the capital of Scotland? What is the symbol of Scotland?

II Read the text and say how the bully is helped in English school. Say if there is bullying in Russian schools, what problems Russian teenagers have.


Bullying is when someone continually insults or hurts you. Many young people are bullied at school. But there are some positive ways to solve the problem.

The "bully box", for example, is a box in school where students put notes about bullying. The important thing is to tell an adult about the bully.

Teachers usually learn how to recognise when a kid is being bullied. But most bullies are stopped by the school or by the kids themselves. At the Martial Arts for Peace association in America, Dr Terence Webster-Doyle suggests discussing the problem openly with the bully. Dr Webster-Doyle teaches martial arts for self-defence, not for fighting. He says that if you know you can defend yourself, "you are not afraid of the other person".


  1. What is the “bully box”?

  2. Who usually stops most bullies?

  3. What does Dr. Webster-Doyle teach martial arts for?

  4. Is bulling a problem in your school? Have you ever been bullied by your classmates?

  5. Do you have good relationship with your teachers and classmates? What makes you angry?

IIISpeak to your teacher.You begin theconversation.

You’re doing the shopping in one of European cities. Now you’re in the department of ready-made clothes. You’d like to buy some new things for summer wear. Ask a shop assistant for advice about the clothes you’re going to buy: if they fit you, if you should buy them. Ask her how much the clothes cost.


P: I'd like to buy some new clothes for summer. Can you advise me anything?

T: We have a lot of very smart new T-shirts; they've just come in. What's your size?

P: Size 44. Does it fit me?

T: It's perfect. It suits you very well. And the material wears well, too.

P: Yes, it's a nice T-shirt. How much does it cost?


P: I think I'll take this one.

T: Very well. Here you are.

P: Many thanks. Good-bye!



IRead thetext and answer yourteachers questions.


George Washington was born February 22, 1732. He was the first president of the United States, elected by people in 1789. People call him the Father of their nation. He was one of the people who fought in the Revolutionary War and later helped write the United States Constitution. There is a famous story about George Washington when he was a young boy. It says that he chopped down his father's cherry tree with an axe. When his father asked, "Who did this?" young George replied "I cannot tell a lie. I did it." Many children have heard this story and are encouraged to tell the truth.

Abraham Lincoln was born on February 12, 1809. He became president in 1860. His presidency was difficult. The states in the north and the south were divided because of slavery. White people in the south owned black people. The north did not like it. A civil war began between the two sides. In the end, the northern states won and President Lincoln helped to free the slaves. He gave a very famous speech about how everybody had the right to be free and how all people were equal.

Both George Washington and Abraham Lincoln were very famous presidents in the United States. Today you can see their faces on American money. George Washington is on the one dollar bill and Abraham Lincoln in on the five dollar bill. Many schools and some cities are named after each president. And the State of Washington and Washington D.C. were both named

after President Washington.


  1. What did George Washington do for his country?

  2. Why was Abraham Lincoln’s presidency difficult?

  3. What was the result of the civil war?

  4. Where can people see the faces of these presidents today?

  5. 5.Do you know any other US presidents? What were they famous for? Who is the president of the United States at the present time?

II Read the text and say what kinds of pollution there are in our planet..

Speak about environmental problems in your city.


People have always polluted their surroundings. But until now pollution was not such a serious problem. People lived in uncrowned rural areas and did not have pollution — causing machines. With the development of crowded industrial cities which put huge amounts of pollutants into small areas, the problem has become more important.

Automobiles and other new inventions make pollution steadily worse. Since the late 1960's people have become alarmed with the danger of pollution.

Air, water, and soil are necessary for existence of all living things. But polluted air can cause illness, and even death. Polluted water kills fish and other marine life. On polluted soil, food can not be grown. In addition environmental pollution spoils the natural beauty of our planet.

Pollution is as complicated as serious problem. Automobiles are polluting the air but they provide transportation for the people. Factories pollute the air and the water but they provide jobs for people and produce necessary goods. Fertilizers and pesticides are important for growing crops but they can ruin soil.

Thus, people would have to stop using many useful things if they wanted to end pollution immediately. Most people do not want that of course. But pollution can be reduced gradually.

Scientists and engineers can find the ways to reduce pollution from automobiles and factories. Government can pass the laws that would make enterprises take measures for reducing of pollution. Individuals and groups of people can work together to persuade enterprises to stop polluting activities.


  1. Why wasn't pollution such as a serious problem earlier?

  2. When have people become alarmed with the danger of pollution?

  3. What can environmental pollution cause?

  4. Why is pollution a complicated problem?

  5. Can pollution be stopped immediately?

  6. What can government and individuals do to reduce pollution?

IIISpeak to your teacher.You begin theconversation.

You’re going to give a talk about one of the English-speaking country. Ask your teacher for advice: what to speak about, how you can make your report more interesting, how long you are allowed to speak at the lesson.


P: I wonder if you could possibly give me some advice.

T: Sure. What's your problem?

P: I am going to make a report about Canada. Will you help me with the topics of my report?

T: Well I'll be glad to.

P: That's so kind of you. Could you tell me how to prepare?

T: I think you could prepare a presentation with slides and a video.

P: Great idea! I'll make a presentation 'Canada - the Land of Adventure'. Shall I start with the

geographical position?

T: Yes. You can show a map of Canada and describe it.

P: Then I'll prepare a short fact file including the most fascinating features.

T: Next you should tell about the expedition of Alexander Mackenzie. Besides I'll give you a

video about various adventures and sports.

P: Thank you. How long will it take to deliver my presentation?

T: I think you will need 15 minutes. Is that enough?

P: There's no need to worry. Thanks a lot for your help.


IRead thetext and answer yourteachers questions.


When most 14-year-old boys are playing football or computer games after school, James Kenyon from Manchester is running his own successful business. “I’ve heard of a company in Scotland selling homemade bath products and thought it was a good idea.

My dad said I could do that, so I decided to take a chance,” James explains. That was two and a half years ago.

James started selling bath products to his friends and neighbours, but soon he began working for two local shopkeepers. Since he started his own soap company, selling homemade soap, bath salt and other bath products, James has earned over & 4,500.

James is proud of his success in business but he thinks there are more important things in his life. “I’ve learnt lots and I’m really enjoying it, but my school work always comes first.

James` s parents are proud of their son, they think that he plans everything really well – he does homework and he can focus on the business in his spare time. James says his parents have been a big support.

In 2006 James became a finalist in the Enterprising Young Brit Award. James is just one of an extraordinary group of enterprising young British businessmen who have innovative ideas and enthusiasm for business. Age and experience is certainly no obstacle to their success; their ambition and energy inspires them to create their money-making ideas.


  1. 1 What business does James Kenyon run?

  2. 2 How did he start his business?

  3. 3 Why do his parents support him?

  4. 4 What do you think helps him to be a successful businessman?

  5. 5 Do you think it` s good or bad for teenagers to run their own business?

II Read the text and say what Americans prefer for breakfast, if it is healthy food. Speak about healthy habits.


Americans, in general, are big eaters and one of the greatest pleasures of the day is sitting down to a hearty breakfast. Most neighbourhood diners and cafeterias offer breakfast specials. Some can be as simple as buttered toast with coffee. Others can almost be equivalent to a full course meal which can provide enough calories for the entire day. This kind of breakfast may start with a glass of orange or tomato juice and then proceed to two eggs with toast, jam, butter and coffee. The menu shows that the eggs are served "any way you like them." This means they can be prepared scrambled, boiled, poached or fried. For those who can't eat eggs, there is a wide variety of other choices. Corn flakes with bananas, waffles with butter, pancakes with maple syrup and French toast are all good alternatives.


  1. Why are Americans called big eaters?

  2. What do most diners and cafeterias offer their visitors?

  3. How can eggs be served?

  4. Do you always eat healthy food? What food do you think is healthy?

  5. Everybody knows that fast food is unhealthy. Do you often eat it?

IIISpeak to your teacher.You begin theconversation.

You’re talking to your foreign friend on the phone. He/She says he/she is going to Moscow soon. He/She wants you to meet him/her at the airport. Ask him/her when he/she is arriving, and what the number of the flight is. Ask what he/she’d like to see in Moscow and where to go.


T: Can you meet at the airport?

P: With pleasure. When will you come?

T: I suppose I'll arrive next Monday at 11.15am.

P: Great! What flight will you arrive?

T: It'll be flight SU-096 from London to Samara (Kurumoch).

P: It's a very good flight. Where would you like to go in Samara?

T: Oh, I'd like to walk along Naberezhnaya Street.

P: Ok. And what would you like to see here?

T: I know, there are many beautiful old churches in Samara. I want to see them very much.

P: It's true. I'll show them. I'll promise. See you next Monday.


IRead thetext and answer yourteachers questions.

BLACKTAXIES,REDBUSES EncyclopaediaBritannica

London hasfiveairports inor nearthe city.The mostimportantairport isHeathrow;it issituatedtwenty fourkilometresfrom thecitycentre. Thecity haseight bigtrainstations,too. Youcan catcha trainfrom Londonto Parisor Brusselsnow. Manypeople liveoutsideLondon andcome intothe cityfor workevery day.Childrenknow aboutKing’sCrossstationbecause itis thetrainstation inHarryPorterbooks.

In the UK people drive their own cars, that`s why the traffic is heavy on the roads. Drivers in the UK drive on the left side of the road! As there are a lot of cars in London, journey can take a very long time at the wrong time of day. But the city is famous for its black taxis and red buses. You can see some of London`s red buses today, and there are other buses, too. London’s taxi drivers have to remember 25000 streets in London. Before they can start driving people, they study maps and drive round the city for about two years; have to answer difficult questions about the best ways across London.

You can move across London by the Underground. Londoners also call these underground trains ‘the Tube’. The London Underground is the oldest in the world. People first used it in 1863. Now it is about 410 kilometres long. There are three hundred stations, and some of them are nearly sixty metres under the streets.

You can, of course, walk around London! No cars or buses can go across London newest bridge.


  1. How many airports and train stations are there in London?

  2. What is unusual about driving in the UK?

  3. What do London’s taxi drivers have to learn and remember?

  4. How deep are some underground stations in London?

  5. How do Londoners call their underground? What word is used in the US?

II Read the text and say how we can struggle with children’s internet addiction. Speak about another addiction you know.


Last week, in a private rehabilitation clinic outside Edinburgh, Leo Edwards, a sixteen-year-old schoolboy, was going through severe withdrawal symptoms. His problem was 'Net obsession'— an over-dependency on the Internet.

An international group of psychologists has recently suggested that anyone who surfs the Internet for long periods is clinically ill and needs medical treatment. According to their report, Internet addicts should be treated in the same way as alcoholics, drug addicts, compulsive gamblers and people with eating disorders.Leo Edwards is not an isolated case. Russell Hopkins, aged fifteen, from Gateshead in north-east England, is a typical online addict.

Every day after school, and after dinner until three or four in the morning, he will be found in his room surfing the Net or playing computer games. By the end of the day he will have spent more than six hours online. Understandably, his parents are extremely worried. Not only has his school work suffered, but Russell's addiction has also destroyed his social life and his spare-time interests. For instance, he has just dropped out of his school's basketball team in order to spend more time at his computer. Instead of spending next weekend having a good time out with friends, he'll be spending it indoors surfing the Internet.

Russell has recently joined an Internet online support group. It may seem ironic that many of the support groups for Internet addicts are online but at least Russell has sought help. Not everyone does. Dr Ann Hoffman, who runs an online support group, says, "People don't realise that being online for more than four hours a day amounts to addiction and that they have a serious problem. I predict that the number of people who join online support groups will have risen dramatically within three years."


  1. How did Leo respond to withdrawal from the Internet?

  2. What do some psychologists compare Internet addicts to?

  3. How is Russel a typical Internet addict?

  4. Do you prefer going online to watching TV?

  5. What information do you search the Net for?

IIISpeak to your teacher.You begin theconversation.

You’re visiting your foreign friend. Both of you want to joina sportsclub. Discusswhat sportyoudlike totake upand why.Choose themost convenientdays togo tothe sportsclub.


P: I have an idea. Let's start going to the sport section.

T: Yes, I don't mind.

P: What sport would you like going in for? -,

T: Swimming. And you?

P: I like swimming, too. But why do you prefer this kind of sport?

T: I think it helps me to feel great. It's very refreshing.

P: You're right! To my mind it's a recreational sport and swimming keeps you fit.

T: I completely agree with you. When shall we go there?

P: I suggest that we'll go there on Mondays and on Fridays.



IRead thetext and answer yourteachers questions.

'ITSONLYME' JustFunnyStories

After her husband had gone to work, Mrs Richards sent her children to school and went upstairs to her bedroom. She was too excited to do any housework that morning, because in the evening she would be going to a fancy dress party with her husband. She intended to dress up as a ghost and she had made her costume the night before. Now she was impatient to try it on. Though the costume consisted only of a sheet, it was very effective. Mrs Richards put it on, looked in the mirror, smiled and went downstairs. She wanted to find out whether it would be comfortable to wear.

Just asMrsRichardswasenteringthedining-room,there wasa knockon thefront door.She knewthat itmust bethe baker.She hadtold himto comestraight inif evershe failedto openthe doorand toleave thebread onthe kitchentable. Notwanting tofrightenthe poorman, MrsRichardsquickly hidin thesmallstore-roomunder thestairs. Sheheard thefront dooropen andheavyfootstepsin thehall.Suddenlythe doorof thestore-roomwas openedand amanentered.MrsRichardsrealizedthat itmust bethe manfrom theElectricityBoard whohad cometo readthe meter.She triedto explainthesituation,saying'It's onlyme', butit wastoo late.The manlet outa cryand jumpedbackseveralpaces. WhenMrsRichardswalkedtowardshim, heran away,slammingthe doorbehind him.


  1. Why was Mrs Richards excited?

  2. Why did she go downstairs in her costume?

  3. Where did she hide when she heard a knock on the door?

  4. What was the man’s reaction when he saw Mrs. Richards in the storehouse?

  5. What holiday were Mr. and Mrs. Richards going to celebrate? Why do you think so?

II Read the text and say how this school is different from most other schools.. Speak about school education in Russia.

FREESCHOOL EnglishTextbook

At White Lion Street Free School there is no punishment for missing classes. But many kids spend more time here than other children spend in their schools. This school is open in the evenings and at weekends. The kids complain if holidays last longer than two weeks. There are no compulsory lessons. Each child has one adult who follows his progress through school. Together they decide what he needs to learn next, and the child does this in his own time. Sometimes kids work on their own, sometimes with an adult, sometimes in a group.

A lot happens outside school. The teachers think you can’t learn everything in one building. They visit local factories, markets, shops, fire and police stations.

Now there are very few Free Schools in England.


  1. How is White Lion Free School different from other schools in England and Russia?

  2. How do pupils of this school work?

  3. Do they learn everything in the some building?

  4. Do you like going to school? Why / Why not?

  5. What subjects are taught at your school? Which are your favourite ones?

IIISpeak to your teacher.You begin theconversation.

You’d like to do a course of a foreign language. Your friend thinks it` a waste of time as there are interpreters who can help you if necessary.

You don` t agree with him/her. Try to persuade your friend that foreign languages are very important today.


P: I'd like to take the English courses. What do you think about it?

T: In my opinion, it's unnecessary, because it will take you many efforts and much time.

P: I don't agree. To my mind I'll need English in my future. It'll help me to communicate with

people all around the world.

T: Oh, great! But you can use the interpreter's help.

P: It's useless. And moreover, I will be able to understand foreign films and songs.

T: May be you're right. And what the best way to learn it?

P: I think the best way to learn is to use a cassette recorder and to practice a lot.

T: Very possible. So, I wish you good luck!

P: It worth learning it. Thanks.


IRead thetext and answer yourteachers questions.


I'll neverforgetEaster of1946.I was14, mylittlesister Ocywas 12,and myeldersisterDarlene was16. Welived athome withour mother;our dadhad diedfive yearsbefore,leaving Momwith threeschool kidsto raiseand nomoney.

A month before Easter the pastor of our church asked everyone to save money and help a poor family.

When we got home, we talked about what we could do. We decided to buy 50 pounds of potatoes and live on them for a month. When we thought that if we kept our electric lights turned out as much as possible and didn't listen to the radio, we'd save money on that month's electric bill. Darlene got as many house and yard cleaning jobs as possible, and both of us babysat for everyone we could.

Every day we counted the money to see how much we had saved. At night we'd sit in the dark and talk about how the poor family was going to enjoy having the money the church would give them.

The day before Easter, Ocy and I walked to the grocery store and the manager gave us three $20 bills and one $10 bill for all our change. We had never had so much money before.

We could hardly wait to get to church. When the pastor was taking money, Mom gave him a $10 bill, and each of us, kids, $20.

As we walked home after church, we sang all the way. Later that afternoon the minister drove up in his car. Mom went to the door and then came back with an envelope in her hand. She opened the envelope and out fell a bunch of money. There were three $20 bills, one $10 and seventeen $1 bills.


  1. 1 Why did the pastor ask the people in church to save money?

  2. 2 How did the narrators family try to save some money?

  3. 3 Why could they hardly wait for Easter Holiday?

  4. 4 What happened later that afternoon?

  5. 5 Did the family expect anybody to bring them the money? Why?

II Read the text and comment on the situation described in the text. Say if you like watching TV, what programmes you and the members of your family prefer, why.


Before we admitted the one-eyed monster into our homes, we never found it difficult to occupy our spare time. We used to enjoy civilised pleasures. For instance, we used to have hobbies, we used to entertain our friends and be entertained by them, we used to go outside for our amusements to theatres, cinemas, restaurants and sporting events. We even used to read books and listen to music and broadcast talks occasionally. All that belongs to the past.

Now all our free time is regulated by the 'goggle box'. We rush home or gulp down our meals to be in time for this or that programme. We have even given up sitting at table and having a leisurely evening meal, exchanging the news of the day.

Whole generations are growing up addicted to the telly. Food is left uneaten, homework undone and sleep is lost. The telly is a universal pacifier. It is now standard practice for mother to keep the children quiet by putting them in the living-room and turning on the set. It doesn't matter that the children will watch rubbishy commercials or spectacles of sadism and violence — so long as they are quiet.

Television encourages passive enjoyment. Little by little, television cuts us off from the real world. We get so lazy, we choose to spend a fine day in semi-darkness, glued to our sets, rather than go out into the world itself.

Television may be a splendid medium of communication, but it prevents us from communicating with each other. We only become aware how totally irrelevant television is to real living when we spend a holiday by the sea or in the mountains, far away from civilisation in quiet, natural surroundings, we quickly discover how little we miss the hypnotic tyranny of King Telly.


  1. What does it mean ‘google box’?

  2. Do you think that television is doing harm? Why?

  3. Why television prevents us from communicating with each other?

IIISpeak to your teacher.You begin aconversation.

You’re taking an interview from a foreign singer. Ask him when and why he became a musician;

what are his further plans.


P: Hello! My name is ……………………….... I’d like to interview if you don't mind.

T: No. I'll answer your questions with pleasure.

P: That's very nice of you. You're a very popular foreign singer. I like your songs and I watch the concerts with you very much.

T: I'm very glad, indeed. :

P: So, when did you begin your singer career?

T: It was long ago when 1 was a child of 10.

P: It's very good. But why did you choose singing not dancing, for example.

T: I was extremely interested in this style since my childhood. And when 1 sing music makes me

think of happy days.

P: I see what you mean. Sure, it's perfect. Moreover, the music has a sentimental, fascinating and

unforgettable power.

T: I feel the same.

P: And, finally have you got any plans in your future, I mean in career?

T: I'll plan to shoot a clip on my song and to record my 4-th single.



IRead thetext and answer yourteachers questions.

FOOTBALL IN ENGLAND EncyclopaediaBritannica

Football is the most popular game in England – you understand it if you come to one of the important matches. Rich and poor, young and old, one can see them all there, shouting and cheering for one side or the other. Football matches are also watched by millions of people on TV.

One of the most surprising things about football in England to a stranger is the greatest knowledge of the game. Even the smallest boy can tell you the names of players in most of the important teams; he has photographs of them and knows the results of large number of matches. He will tell you, who he expects will win such and such a match, and his opinion is usually as good as of men three or four times older.

Most schools in England take football seriously – much more seriously than nearly all European schools. In England, it is believed that education is not only a matter of filling a boy’s mind with facts in the classroom: education also means character training; and one of the best ways of training character is by means of games, especially team games, where the boy has to learn to work with others for his team, instead of working selfishly for himself alone.

The school therefore arranges games and matches for its pupils. Football is a good team game, it is good exercise for the body, it needs skill and a quick brain, it is popular and it is cheap: as a result, it is a schools` favourite game.


  1. Prove that football is the most popular game in England.

  2. What can surprise you about football in England?

  3. What is one of the best ways of training character?

  4. Why is football a good team game?

  5. What other team game do you know? Are they popular in England or Russia?

II Read the text and say which facts are for reading book and which are against it. Say if the technological progress is important to people.


The death of the book has been predicted for centuries. Cinema, radio and television have all been presented as the murderers of books and reading. With the development of computing and the Internet books were replaced by electronic media. Who wants to use a twenty-volume encyclopaedia if you can take the necessary information from a small CD-ROM? It is, of course, the greatest revolution! But no one will lie in bed reading a novel from CD-ROM. Reading and the books, magazines and newspapers are still important in our lives. They continue to teach and amuse us.


  1. What has been predicted for many years? Why?

  2. Where can you take the necessary information from?

  3. Do you prefer reading electronic books to printed books? Why / Why not?

  4. How often do you use the Internet? What for?

  5. Can you do without your mobile phone? Is it a useful gadget?

III Speak to yourteacher. You beginthe conversation.

Discuss with your foreign friend what is necessary to become successful: a good education, a lucky marriage, a special talent for something. Give your opinion and ask about your friend’s opinion of this problem.


P: I'm a school-leaver now. And leaving school is the beginning of my future professional life.

T: You want to say in order to be successful in life you need to graduate from the University.

P: Quite right. But first of all I should enter the University.

T: Why do you think so?

P: You see, the profession is of great importance now. It helps to evaluate you. Above all, it's very necessary when a profession fits the person to make him happy.

T: But what about the marriage?

P: It's a serious thing in life. But now people usually get married after making a career in their thirties.

T: I see your idea of successful life.

P: Do you agree with it?

T: Maybe you're right. They say "Every man is the maker of his own fortune". The time will show.

P: Yes, if we don't think about the future, we won't be successful in life.

T: I wish you good luck.



IRead thetext and answer yourteachers questions.

THESPIDER FirstScience

Have you ever seen a small animal with four pairs of legs, a body that is divided into two parts?

This is a spider. Spiders live all over the world. They do not live only in the coldest places. You may find them on land: on grass, bushes, trees, and on pools, rivers, seas. There are 15,000 different kinds of spiders. The smallest spider is less than 1 mm in body length, and the biggest one can have body length up to 90 mm.

The spider spins its web to catch insects for food. It spins its web all its life. The process of spinning a web is very long. People say that the spider is very persistent in its work. If you destroy its web, a spider will begin to spin a new web.

There is a story about a spider and a Scottish hero Robert Bruce (1274-1329). Robert Bruce was at the head of the Scottish army in the fight for the independence of Scotland against the English kings, Edward the First and Edward the Second. .

Once Robert Bruce was watching a spider spinning the web. Robert Bruce destroyed the web, and the spider began to spin a new web. Several times Robert Bruce destroyed the web, and each time the spider began its work from the beginning.

Watching the persistent work of the spider, Bruce decided to be as persistent as the spider and continue the fight for the independence of Scotland. And he defeated the English.

It was many years ago, but Scottish people still remember their great victory, and their great leader Robert Bruce.


  1. Where do spiders live?

  2. What does the spider do all its life? Why?

  3. What happens if you destroy its web?

  4. What nationality was Robert Bruce and who did he fight against?

  5. Why did Robert Bruce decide to continue the fight? Who won?

II Read the text and comment on the situation described in the text. Speak about advantages and disadvantages of internet.


Not long ago computers were considered an amazing invention. Today they form part of our everyday life. The latest thing today is Virtual Reality. A Virtual Reality system can transport the user to exotic locations such as a beach in Hawaii or the inside of the human body.

The Virtual Reality system is still in the early stages of its development. At the moment it is necessary to put a large helmet on your head to see the simulated world and you have to wear a special glove on your hand in order to manipulate the objects you see there. Lenses and two miniature display screens inside the helmet create the illusion that the screen surrounds you on every side.

You can «look behind» computer— generated objects, pick them up and examine them, walk around and see things from a different angle.

Already today Virtual Reality is used in medicine. In hospitals, surgeons could plan operations by first «travelling» through the brain, heart or lungs without damaging the body. It is also used in police training schools. In schools pupils could explore the Great Pyramid or study molecules from the inside. Developers of Virtual Reality say its potential is powerful.

The word which comes closest to describing Virtual Reality is «simulator». Virtual Reality technology resembles the flight simulators that are used to train pilots.


1. What is Virtual Reality?

2. Why do you need to wear helmet and special glove?

3. What are the possible uses of Virtual Reality?

4. What are some of the disadvantages of Virtual Reality?

5. Do you think Virtual Reality is an important invention or not?

III Speak to yourteacher. You beginthe conversation.

You foreign friend often goes to MacDonald’s. Tell him/her that the food people eat there isn’t healthy, give your reasons. Give him/her advice about the healthy eating.



T: Why not? I like its food. Such takeaways as McDonald's suit me very well.

P: May be. But try to avoid paying regular visits to fast-food restaurants because their food is not useful for your health.

T: Have you got any reasons for it?

P: Yes, they serve unhealthy fatty and high cholesterol food.

T: But we eat fat products every day.

P: Probably. There aren't any knives, forks and spoons there and moreover, you eat with your fingers.

T: I have no option but to agree to what you've said. So, what must I do to be healthy?

P: I advise to eat more fruit and vegetables and try to use chocolate, cakes, sweets that give a lot of energy from time to time.

T: Ok. A fine friend you are!


IRead thetext and answer yourteachers questions.


When Martin Eden returned to San Francisco, he began to write. He sent his works to newspapers and magazines, but the editors sent his manuscripts back. Martine continued to write and study at the same time. Martine slept five hours: only a man in very good health could work for nineteen hours a day.

The weeks passed. All Martin’s money was spent and publishers continued to send his manuscripts back. Martin sold his coat, then his watch.

One morningthe postmanbrought hima shortthinenvelope.There wasnomanuscriptin thatenvelope,therefore,Martinthoughtthey hadtaken thestory. Itwas TheRingoftheBells.In theletter theeditor ofa SanFranciscomagazinesaid thatthe storywas good.They wouldpay theauthor fivedollars forit. Andhe wouldreceive thecheck whenthe storywaspublished.

Martin thought that five dollars for five thousand words was very little. After a few weeks the story was published, but the check didn’t` arrive. Martin had waited for about a month before he decided to go and get the five dollars from the editor.

He enteredthe officeand saidthat hewanted tosee MrFord – the editor.“I`mMartinEden,” Martinbegan theconversation.He wantedto askfor hisfivedollars,but itwas hisfirsteditor andhe didn’t`t wantto makea badimpressionon him.To hissurprise MrFordquicklystood upwith thewords “Youdon` tsay so!” and thenextmoment,with bothhands wasshakingMartin` shand.


  1. Where did Martin Eden write his first stories?

  2. What happened to most of his early works?

  3. What was in the letter the postman brought him one morning?

  4. How much money did Mr. Ford, his editor, was going to pay him? Was it a large sum of money for Martin’s story?

  5. 5.Why did Martin Eden come to Mr. Ford’s office? How was he accepted by the editor?

II Read the text and say what the environmental organisations usually do. Say why it is very important to protect the environment.


There are several groups in Britain which try to protect the environment. The most famous group is Greenpeace, which campaigns in many countries around the world. They have campaigned against hunting whales, pollution in the North Sea, nuclear power, and many other issues.

Another important environmental group is Friends of the Earth. They campaigned against global warming, the destruction of the rainforest, and the hole in the ozone layer.

There are many other groups which are worried about the environment. The oldest is the National Trust which was set up in 1895 to protect parks, buildings and monuments in Britain.


  1. What are the most famous environmental groups? Which is the oldest one?

  2. What do they campaign against?

  3. Why is pollution a big problem for people now?

  4. Is water in the area where you live clear or polluted?

  5. What pollutes water and air?

III Speak to yourteacher. You beginthe conversation.

Your foreign friend thinks that computers are harmful. You don` t agree with him. Prove that he/she is wrong. Give a few examples to show that computers can be very helpful.


P: I say I couldn't live without my PC at home. I use it all the time.

T: Well. But for what do you need it?

P: It's like a typewriter and an address book for me. And it is also used for checking my spelling.

T: To tell the truth I 'm against the PC. It hurts our health esp-ly our eyes.

P: It's true. As for me, I use it to get information from the Internet.

T: But you can go to the library.

P: Unfortunately, the library can be closed any time. Moreover, there are not all the newest books there.

T: I see. But what about your friends? How do you communicate with them?

P: Oh, it's very simple. We communicate ourselves using on-line due to the fact that we go on

the Internet.

T: Without words. Now I see PC is a good thing in the world.


IRead thetext and answer yourteachers questions.


About one hundred years ago many educated people learned and spoke French when they met people from other countries. Today most people speak English when they meet foreigners. It has become the new international language. There are more people who speak English as a second language than people who speak English as a first language. Why is this?

There are many reasons why English has become so popular. One of them is that English has become the language of business. Another important reason is that popular American culture (like movies, music, and McDonald's) has quickly spread throughout the world. It has brought its language with it.

Is it good that English has spread to all parts of the world so quickly? I don't know. It's important to have a language that the people of the earth have in common. Our world has become very global and we need to communicate with one another. On the other hand, English is a fairly complicated language to learn and it brings its culture with it. Do we really need that?

Scientists have already tried to create an artificial language that isn't too difficult and doesn't include any one group's culture. It is called Esperanto. But it hasn't become popular. But maybe the popularity of English won't last that long either. Who knows? There are more people in the world who speak Chinese than any other language. Maybe someday Chinese will be the new international language.


  1. What language do people learn and speak about one hundred years ago?

  2. Why has the English language become so popular?

  3. Why is it important to learn and speak English?

  4. What do you know about Esperanto? Who was it created by?

  5. Do you think Chinese will be the new international language in the future? Explain you point of view.

II Read the text and say how people can be healthy. Speak about traditional food in United States of America.


You are what you eat. I think it's right. Any food is food for the whole organism each cell so our state depends on the food we eat. I prefer healthy food.

Healthy food begins with healthy products. Some foods help us to preserve youth and some sanity. The healthier food which I accept the better I feel. A healthy food is primarily natural products without chemical additives and intermediates. Another important factor is the freshness. It is undesirable to store any food for more than three days. I eat lots of fruits, vegetables and cereals. Although I can’t live without meat I largely support the vegetarian and raw-foodists. They are 10-20 years old live longer than ordinary people. I think this is the most compelling figure.



  1. Why do many people eat junk food?

  2. What is ‘healthy food’ in your opinion?

  3. How often do you eat junk food?

  4. Is it important to eat healthy food? Why?

III Speak to yourteacher. You beginthe conversation.

You’ve invited your foreign guests to a school party which your classmates are planning to celebrate Moscow City Day. Discuss with your teacher when and how to organise the party.



T: With pleasure. I listen to you.

P: We're going to make a school party that will be devoted to the town's day.

T: It's a very good idea.

P: And our foreign guests will take part in this party.

T: Fine. It will be great.

P: Could you advise me how to organize it?

T: Willingly. I think you should make the party like a musical almanac.

P: I see, we have slides about our town and the rhymes of our local poets.

T: You can show our guests the school theatre's play at the end of party.

P: Ok. And the last question. When should we organize it?

T: To my mind, the best variant is on the last Saturday of June.



IRead thetext and answer yourteachers questions.

FLIGHT InventionsThatChangedtheWorld

For many centuries people watched birds and dreamed that they could fly. We cannot fly like birds: we don`t have enough strength in our arms to move wings up and down. We also really need the power of an engine to drive up forward. Many people died learning these lessons, before controlled flight became possible.

The first flying machine which could carry a human being was built in Spain in 875. Reports tell us that the inventor flew some distance, but the landing was hard: the man hurt his back badly and was never able to fly again.

It was possible that the news of his flight reached England, carried there by men returning from war in the Middle East. Whether this is true or not, in 1010 a man called Oliver jumped off a church roof in Mulmesbury. This time we know the distance of his flight - 125 steps.

In thelast yearsof the15thcentury,the ItalianLeonardo daVincistudied theflight ofbirds andmade anumber ofdrawings offlyingmachines.His earlymachinestried tocopy themovement ofbirds`wings,which hedidn’tfullyunderstand.But lessthan 10yearsbefore hisdeath in1519, hedrew amachinewith wingsthat didn’tmove. Oneof themachineswas builtand itdid fly.

In 1536in France,Denis Bolorreturned tothe ideaof movingwings. Hetried tofly usingwings thatwere movedup anddown. Theideadidn’t`t workand hefell tohis death.


  1. What did people dream about for many centuries?

  2. Why can’t we fly?

  3. Where and when was the first flying machine built?

  4. Where did Oliver jump off?

  5. What did Leonardo da Vinci study and make?

II Read the text and say how people can make new friends. Speak about your family’s relationship.


Every day we meet new people and every time we take out something important for ourselves. Any person isn’t met by us in vain. Someone tests us, someone gives us a lesson, someone helps to receive new skills and knowledge, and someone makes us to become better and this is the most valuable thing.

In the relationships we receive as much as we can give. If you want understanding, try to understand. Everything comes back is a simple formula which works at all times.

It isn't also necessary to fight for a place in human life. Love can't be ordered, but many people forget this simple and a very wise truth. Never try to win the space in life of other person. After all you can't know for certain, whether it is necessary or not.

Building the relationships is always a hard work as well as their further development. They demand active participation of all involved parties. Sincerity, reciprocity and respect are those bases without which any relationships will fail.

It is necessary to be able to forgive. Many people consider the forgiveness as a sign of weakness. But words "I forgive you" do not mean that at all. They mean more – "I won't allow the past to spoil the future and the present therefore I forgive you and I release all offenses".


  1. How can you understand the word ‘relationship’?

  2. Is it easy for you to make new friends?

  3. Is it necessary to forgive people?

III Speak to yourteacher. You beginthe conversation.

In October you’re going to England. Speak to your foreign friend, who lives there, and ask him/her what the weather is usually like there in October; how often it changes. Ask your friend to recommend you what clothes to take with you.


P: Hello, K.! How are you?

T: Hi! Fine, thanks. And you?

P: I'm fine, too. I'm going to visit you in October about a week.

T: Oh, great! I'll be very glad to see you.

P: What's the weather like there in October?

T: I think it'll be wet, because it's often rains in autumn.

P: Ok. How does it often change?

T: Not often. In the evening it begins to freeze.

P: Not bad. What clothes should I take with me?

T: I advise you to take the warm clothes with umbrella.


IRead thetext and answer yourteachers questions.


Miss Martha was 40 years old but she was not married. She had her own shop where she sold bread, both fresh and stale which was cheaper.

There was a customer who called at her shop two or three times a week. The man was not young but he was very pleasant. He wore cheap clothes but they always looked nice on him. He always bought stale bread and never fresh. Miss Martha decided that he was very poor.

She often thought of him and was always sorry that she couldn’t invite him to have dinner with her. She wanted to talk to him, to know more about him. She liked the man and began wearing her best dress. She wanted to help the poor man but didn’t know how to do it.

Once when her customer called on her to buy stale bread, Miss Martha had an idea and a good one, as she thought, to help him. She put some butter in the stale bread.

Thenextdaytwomencameintotheshop.Oneofthemwashercustomerandtheother ayoungman.Thecustomerwasveryangryandcouldntspeaktoher.SotheyoungmantoldMissMarthaeverything.Weworktogetherinthesameoffice,hesaid.Weusestalebreadtotakeawaytopencillinesfromourplans. Wehaveworkedataplanofanewdistrictforsixmonths.Wefinisheditthismorningandbegantakingawaypencillinesfromitwithyourbread.Yousee,astherewasbutterinthebreadtheplanisgoodfornothing,andwecantshowthisplantoanybodynow.



  1. What did Martha sell in her shop?

  2. Who came to her shop two or three times a week?

  3. Why did Martha decide to help the man? What did she do?

  4. Why were the man and his friend angry?

  5. How do you think Martha felt when the men left the shop?

II Read the text and say how people can struggle with ecological problems. Speak about ecology in Russia.


Since ancient times Nature has served Man, being the source of his life. For thousands of years people lived in harmony with environment and it seemed to them that natural riches were unlimited. But with the development of civilization man's interference in nature began to increase.

Large cities with thousands of smoky industrial enterprises appear all over the world today. The by-products of their activity pollute the air we breathe, the water we drink, the land we grow grain and vegetables on.

Every year world industry pollutes the atmosphere with about 1000 million tons of dust and other harmful substances. Many cities suffer from smog. Vast forests are cut and burn in fire. Their disappearance upsets the oxygen balance. As a result some rare species of animals, birds, fish and plants disappear forever, a number of rivers and lakes dry up.

The pollution of air and the world's ocean, destruction of the ozone layer is the result of man's careless interaction with nature, a sign of the ecological crises.

Some progress has been already made in this direction. As many as 159 countries — members of the UNO — have set up environmental protection agencies. An international environmental research centre has been set up on Lake Baikal. The international organisation Greenpeace is also doing much to preserve the environment.

But these are only the initial steps and they must be carried onward to protect nature, to save life on the planet not only for the sake of the present but also for the future generations.


  1. How did people live for thousands of years?

  2. What cities appear all over the world today?

  3. What pollutes the air we breathe?

  4. What is the result of the pollution the atmosphere?

  5. Why is environmental protection of a universal concern?

  6. What are the initial steps in this direction?

III Speak to yourteacher. You beginthe conversation.

Your friend is in a bad mood. Ask him/her why he/she feels upset, and if you can help him/her.

Give him/her advice how to cope with the situation.


P: Nice to see you again. You look not great.

T: Bad news, I'm afraid.

P: What's happened?

T: You see, I want to work but I can't find a job.

P: Don't loose heart. If you have a good professional background sooner or later you'll get a job in your special food.

T: Really?

P: Sure. First of all you should write an application.

T: Could you tell me how to do it.

P: With pleasure. Include information that shows you're the right kind of person for the job.

T: Ok. That's a good idea!

P: No doubt! If the employer realizes that you're a right person for particular position, he'll give you an appointment.

T: That's very kind of you; thank you very much.

P: Good luck.


IRead thetext and answer yourteachers questions.

HOGMANAY EncyclopaediaBritannica

Many nationaland localcelebrationstook placein Scotlandin thepast andsomesurvive tothis day.They starton January1stand finishon themajorcelebrationon theScottishcalendar – Hogmanay,New Year'sEve, onDecember31st.Hogmanay,thecelebrationof bringingin theNew Yearis amoreimportantfestival inScotlandthanChristmas.

The origin of the word ‘Hogmanay’ is lost in the past. Historians believe that the Scots inherited the celebration from the Vikings who, coming from even further north than they themselves, paid even more attention to the passing of the shortest day.

The Scots have a long rich heritage associated with this event. There are traditions such as cleaning the house (known as "redding") on December 31st (including taking out the ashes from the fire in the days when coal fires were common); visiting friends and relatives immediately after New Year's Eve, in the early hours of the morning of January 1st. First footing after the bells have rung in the New Year is still common - the "first foot" in the house after midnight should be male, dark, and handsome and should carry symbolic coal, shortbread, salt, black bun (a spiced cake) and, of course, whisky.

And Scotlandis theonly partof theUK thathas astatutoryholiday onJanuary 2ndas wellas January1st- sothey canrecoverfrom theexcesses ofDecember31st!


  1. What is the major celebration on the Scottish calendar?

  2. What is the origin of “Hogmanay”?

  3. How do the Scots celebrate this holiday?

  4. Why don’t they work or study on January 1st and January 2nd?

  5. Which celebration is more important in other parts of the UK: the New Year or Christmas?

II Read the text and say if you can make success if you aren’t good-looking. Speak about successful person.


Beauty is far more than skin deep, according to a leading scientist.

Good looks can smooth the way to a better education and well-paid job as well as getting the best out of others.Attractive men and women reap benefits from their appearances all through their lives, says psychologist Dr Nancy Etcoff.

Bonny babies get preferential treatment over plain ones while teachers assume their most attractive pupils are the smartest. In later life, police officers, judges and juries are more lenient towards pretty women and handsome men.Dr Etcoff, who works at Harvard Medical School in the U.S., in her book "Survival of the Fittest: The Science of Beauty" argues that beautiful people are "sprinkled with Stardust right from the beginning".

Her studies showed both women and men tended to be more helpful towards a pretty woman asking for help than a plainer one. In one experiment, researchers left a coin in full view in a telephone kiosk and waited for passers by to make a call.The callers were then approached by one of two actresses and asked if they had found a coin left behind. The better looking woman got her coin back 87 per cent of the time. But the plainer actress was less successful, scoring a 64 per cent return rate.The two women later stood at the roadside by a car with a flat tyre. The prettier one was far more likely to be helped first, the study found.

Dr Etcoff shows mothers are more likely to talk and play with beautiful babies, while teachers expect good looking pupils to be "smarter and more sociable".Dr Etcoff said that while good looks can make life easier, they do not guarantee happiness."Beautiful people are perhaps a little bit happier," she said. "But not as much as we might imagine."


  1. Is it good to be good-looking? Why? Why not?

  2. How can good looks smoothen the way in your life? Prove this.

  3. Do good looks guarantee happiness?

  4. Is the appreciation of human beauty the result of cultural and social pressures?

  5. Are beauty ideals the same during evolutionary process?

III Speak to yourteacher. You beginthe conversation.

You and your friend are going to prepare a project about one of the English-speaking countries.

Discuss what country you are going to speak about, what is necessary to do in order to make the project interesting; what each of you is going to prepare for the presentation.


P: Now it's time to have a talk about our project.

T: You're quite right. If I've not mistaken it'll be a project about the UK.

P: It's true. Let's think about what we're going to write.

T: I think we should start with the geographical position.

P: Including a short fact about the most fascinating features.

T: It's very important because it'll make a full picture of the country.

P: I agree with you. So, I think I could prepare a presentation with slides and a video.

T: Great idea! Can I help you?


T: Willingly.

P: So, what do you think about a map of Great Britain in our work?

T: Sure. It's very necessary.

P: All right. So let's start working.

T: I believe, we'll do it.