My Family №1-3 Family traditions №2 4 балла №4. Friendship and relationship with friends EDUCATION №5 Card № 7. School traditions 4 points Let's talk about life in the city and in the country Different types of (British)...

My Family №1-3 Family traditions №2 4 балла №4. Friendship and relationship with friends EDUCATION №5 Card № 7. School traditions 4 points Let's talk about life in the city and in the country Different types of (British)...

My Family №1-3 Family traditions №2 4 балла №4. Friendship and relationship with friends EDUCATION №5 Card № 7. School traditions 4 points Let's talk about life in the city and in the country Different types of (British)...

My Family №1-3

I’m … (name). I’m … (15 years old). I’d like to tell you about my family. First of all I want to say that I have grown up in a nuclear family, we are a family of 3. I live with my parents. But I’ve got an elder brother. He is married and has a family of his own.

In my opinion family is an emotional centre of a person’s life, the place where children are being raised. The process of upbringing children is difficult. It requires much effort, mutual respect, tolerance.

What is the secret of a happy family? The proverb says, ‘’Men make houses, women makes homes”. In my view, it means, that the man provides for his family, pays attention to the problems of the members of the family. And the woman creates a homely atmosphere, encourages her husband and children to keep up family traditions and keeps the house. Together they build a happy family and bring up children in the right way.

It’s true about our family. It’s very united. We like to spend time together. In the evening we watch TV, read books and newspapers or just discuss everyday problems. My parents don’t always agree with me but they take into consideration my opinion.

To sum up, I share Din Wilcox’s thought about the family, “I don’t care how poor a man is: if he has a family, he’s rich”.

Family traditions№2

In my opinion F tr-s are important and necessary. They create good relationship and special moments to remember. F tr-s help parents to impact the family values to their children from generation to generation. There are no special tr-s in our family, but we all like holidays and celebrate them together. My favourite holidays are New Year’s Day, Christmas, Women’s Day. Our family celebrate birthdays and anniversaries. On these days we usually have a party. Our relatives and friends come with presents and flowers and we have dinner. We cook delicious food. After dinner we dance, listen to music or just chat. Such meetings make our family stronger.


Friends and Friendship№4

Lucky are those people who have friends. I'm happy to have lots of friends, too. Some of them are very close, some are less. But all of them make my life interesting and enjoyable. Friendship is a bridge between loneliness and fellowship, frustration and confidence, despair and hope, setbacks and success.

I would like to tell you some words about my best friend Olga. She is 17 years old. We study at the same school, at the same class, and we seat at the same desk.

She is of average height. Olga is a slender girl with curly hair and brown eyes. I think that she is very attractive.

Olga has a lot of hobbies. But most of all she prefers to read various books (from detectives to love stories), to play computer games and to go for a walk. She likes to dream. And sometimes we go to the cinema or to the theatre together.

Olga is a very amazing girl. She is never boring, she is always smiling and laughing. She is very enthusiastic, responsible and fair. I trust her all my secrets and I'm sure that only we know about them. Olga has a good sense of humour. I like to communicate with Olga. We can talk for hours. She always understands and supports me.

She is very clever, skillful and diligent. She does well at school. She is interested in such subjects as English, Russian, Literature and History.

But like other people she isn't ideal. Sometimes she can be lazy, stubborn or impatient. Anyway I like her with all her positive and negative features of character.

More over I know that the way to have a friend is to be one, so my friend can rely on me I won’t let her down.

Findinthetext.

  1. Дружба – это мост между одиночеством и друзьями, растерянностью и уверенностью, отчаянием и надеждой, неудачей и успехом. 2) Я знаю, что единственный путь иметь друга – это самому быть хорошим другом. 3) Она среднего роста. 4) Ольга стройная кареглазая девушка с кучерявыми волосами. 5) Она всегда понимает меня и поддерживает.


4 балла

Lucky are those people who have friends. I’m happy to have lots of friends, too. But my best friend is Lesha/Olga. She/He is 17 years old. She/He has got lots of hobbies. But most of all he/she likes playing football and going for a walk.

Olga/Lesha’s got a good sense of humour. She/He always understands and supports me. We are good friends.



4. Friendship and relationship with friends

  1. Let’s talk about your friendship. What role do friends play in your life?

(My friends play a very important role in my life. They understand and support me, make my life more interesting and enjoyable.)

  1. Can you rely on your best friend?

(Yes, I can. When I’m in trouble he/she always support me.)

  1. What questions do you usually ask when you want to get acquainted with someone?

  1. What can you advise a teenager who wants to make friends in a new school?

( He should join the club with the same interests,

He shouldn’t be afraid of communication

He should be friendly and open, then he will cope with all difficulties.

  1. They say “If you haven’t learnt the meaning of friendship, you really haven’t learnt anything”. What do you think about this?

(I think that friendship is a bridge between loneliness and fellowship, frustration and confidence, despair and hope, setbacks and success. If you really understand it, you would appreciate your best friends and in this case u will never stay alone.


EDUCATION №5

If all good people were clever and ail clever people were good, the world would be nicer than ever, I think that education is a key to a good future. And schools are the first step on the education-way. Schools help young people to choose their careers, they make pupils clever and well-educated.

My name is.....and I'm a pupil of the 11th form. I study at schoolnumber 10. I would like to tell you a few

words about my school life. I go to school five days a week except Saturday and Sunday. Classes in our school start at 8 o'clock in the morning and last till 2. Usually we have 6 or 7 lessons a day. We study a lot of different subjects: Russian, Belarusian, English, Russian and Belarusian literatures, History, Geography, Biology, Physics, Chemistry, Math, etc. I like History, Belarusian and English most of all.

A school year is divided into four terms. It begins on the 1st of September known as the Day of Knowledge and finishes in May. Each term is followed by holidays that last one week in autumn and spring and two weeks in winter Our school was built more than 20 years ago.

British systemof education is a little bit differs from others. First of all there is state and private education in Britain. State education is free. 93% of the children go to state schools.

At the age of 5 kids go to infant schools.

At the age of 6 they start studying in junior school (primary education).

At the age of 11 they take their exams and enter secondary schools.

At the age of 16 pupils take a national exam (called GCSE). Then they can leave school if they wish.

More ambitious pupils stay at school for two years longer. A-level or AS-level tests are taken after these two years. They are the main standard for entrance to university or other higher education.

Some parents prefer to pay for their children to be educated at independent or public schools, its students are largely from aristocratic and upper-class families.

The educational system in Belarusincludes pre-schools, general schools, specialized technical and higher education.

So-called pre-schools are kindergartens in fact. It isn't compulsory education - children can get it at home.

Compulsory education is for children from 6(7) to 17 years old at general schools or gymnasiums. The term of studying consists of primary, middle and upper stages. After the 9th form pupils have to pass their examinations. Also they have a choice between entering the 10th grade of general secondary schools or going to get professional education. Pupils who finish the genera! secondary school, receive a secondary education certificate, giving them the right to enter any higher educational establishment according to the final mark that includes the average mark of the school-leaving certificate and the three certificates of centralized testing. One has to study in the institute for 5 years. Higher educational institutions train students in one or several specializations.

In conclusion I'd like to say.... I like going to school because here I have many friends and wise teachers who can always help me to make the right choice in life.

Education

Britain

Belarus

2- 5 - pre- school education (not compulsory)

1- nursery

2-5 – pre-school education (kindergartens)



6- primary school

General school:

6-10 – primary stage

11 – exam – secondary school

11 – 15 – middle stage – exams -

May leave school and have technical education

16 – national exam – can leave school

16-17 – upper stage - secondary education certificate

16-18 – A-level, AS-level tests – university

secondary education certificate + 3 centralized testing - 5 years - university

6. Studying at school

  1. Let’s talk about studying in school. What is your school like?

  2. Do you agree that our school gives a person a good start in life? Why (not)?

  3. Ask me what kind of pupil I was at school.

  4. Which school club would you advise your classmate to join?

  5. Today some young people think that having a good education is very important. Do you agree with them?


Card № 7. School traditions

Pupils spend at school the most important years in their lives. Their character and perception* of the world are formed there. In this period they grow up, get stronger, find friends, develop their talents and skills and begin to understand life. Therefore school remains in our hearts all our life.

I have studied at school №10. From my point of view, it's one of the best schools in our town.

On the first of September we traditionally began every school year, we listened to the speech of headmaster, watched the concert and congratulated* our teachers with the beginning of studying.

At our school there is everything necessary for our study and leisure. The 3-storeyed school building itself is of a typical design. But its corridors and classrooms are very nice and light. There are a lot of indoor plants* and flowers in it.

We have a school library where we can read books and enjoy pictures. There is a tradition to organize exhibitions* and meetings there. I have been able to see pictures of famous artists from our town, listen to poets, writers, artists and journalists in our library. To my mind it's a good tradition when both pupils and teachers come to the library to meet a famous person, have a look at the beauty of fine arts or just discuss an interesting book.

The school hall is decorated with photos of our teachers and people who studied here well.

I have always been fond of taking part in extra-class activities such as concerts, debate clubs, intellectual games and sports competitions.

I enjoyed studying at our school.

*** Perception восприятие, congratulate поздравлять, indoor plants- комнатныерастения, exhibition выставка, extra-class activities внеклассныемероприятия, revision повторение, suicide–sui’said- суецид, bullying притеснениеиунижение

4 points

I have studied at school №10. It’s a 3-storeyed building.

My school is big and light. In my opinion it's one of the best schools in our town.

I think the most popular school traditions were to celebrate the beginning of the year, teacher’s day, take part in sport races and in the prom.

I enjoyed studying at our school.

Билет № 7

1. Let’s talk about school traditions. Why are they important?

In my opinion school traditions are important because they make our school life more interesting and enjoyable.

I think the most popular school traditions were to celebrate the beginning of the year, teacher’s day, New Year’s Day. We also took part in sport races and in the prom.

2. What can you tell me about the place where you study?

I have studied at school №10. It’s a 3-storeyed building. My school is big and light. In my opinion it's one of the best schools in our town.

I enjoyed studying at our school.

3. Ask me about my school life and school traditions.

1) Did you have a school uni-form?

2) What school traditions did you have?

3) Do you miss your school teachers/ Do you miss your school?

4) Were you an active pupil at school?

4. You are talking to a British student. What you advise him/her to do to prepare for an exam well

You should prepare not on the last day, start earlier!

You should do the revision* step by step, work harder.

At the exam you shouldn’t be afraid, try to be confident and look well.


5. Nowadays some young people complain that they have lots of problems at school? Do you agree with them?

Yes, I do. I think most of us have to deal with bullies at one point or another. Bullying* is a serious problem, both in schools and in the workplace. Some have been so serious that they have led to the victims committing suicide* due to bullying. From my point of view, we should just ignore them, try to avoid them and stay with our friends instead.

(read more: http://www.wikihow.com/Deal-With-Bullies)


Vocabulary

decision – решение
profitable –
хорошооплачиваемый
be engaged –
бытьзанятым
creative –
творческий
a specialist in business matters –
специалиствсферебизнеса
qualities - 
качества
suitable –
подходящий
turn into  –
превратиться
nightmare –
кошмар
working hours  –
рабочеевремя
travel on business –
ездитьвкомандировки
provide –
обеспечивать
employees –
служащие, работники
accommodation –
жильё
upright –
прямо
relax –
расслабиться
make answers relevant - 
отвечать посуществу

Билет №8

1. Let’s talk about your future career. What would you like to become?

It’s a very difficult decision to choose the right job. Of course, I want a profitable job, but I also want to enjoy the profession in which I’ll be engaged. I want a creative job, no matter what the profession will be. Maybe I’ll become a specialist in business matters like my mother.

2. Does a person need to possess special qualities to become a good specialist in this or that particular field? Why?

Yes, each profession needs special qualities. To become a good specialist one should analyze whether the job is suitable for him or whether he is suitable for the job. Otherwise the job may later turn into a nightmare.

3. What questions will you ask your future employer at a job interview?

What are the working hours? How much is the salary? Do I have to travel on business? Do you provide your employees with accommodation?

4. Give me some advice on how to behave at a job interview to create a positive impression on the employer.

Sit upright with your shoulders back and relax. Make eye contact. Smile – give the impression of being happy to be there. Keep your answers simple, relevant and interesting.

5. Some people think that it is necessary to have a good command of a foreign language to get a good job. Do you agree with this?

 I agree. Though not all jobs require a good knowledge of a foreign language, it’s absolutely necessary if you are going to become a specialist in business matters.


Let's talk about life in the city and in the country

It's common knowledge that tastes differ. Nowadays there are a lot of people who prefer to live in big cities, and, at the same time, there are others, who dream of living in the country.

It goes without saying that life in a big city has a lot of disadvantages. The first and main is an air- and noise-pollution. Cars pollute the air , which is particularly harmful to children, because their brains and nervous systems are more vulnerable (уязвимый) than adults ones. Besides, life in a big city is much more stressful and expensive than in the country or in a small town.

Everyone complain about (непомерную) exorbitant rents that must be paid for tiny flats. Apart from accommodation, the cost of living is very high. A citizen runs into a lot of extra expenses paying for the public transport, snacks, food delivery and entertainment.

There are too many people living together in one city, and the streets are crowded. Minsk has a population of 2 mln people, St. Petersburg has a population of 5 mln people, London - 8 mln people, New York - 9 mln people, Tokyo - 12 mln people. It also takes people a lot of time to get to work by metro, as there are long distances between the stations. In big cities drivers suffer from traffic jams, accidents and car crashes. Pedestrians (Пешеходы) suffer from the rush hour, constant queuing and irregularity of public transport.

But whatever the disadvantages are, I'm charmed with the speed of city life and great possibilities it gives. Living in a big city gives you a lot of advantages nowadays. Firstly, life in big cities is more anonymous (анонимный). You can be what you want to be and do what you want to do without anybody getting upset about it, whereas in the country almost everybody knows you and expects you to live and behave in a certain way.

Secondly, there is so much going on in the city. You have access to a huge range of concerts of different types of music - pop, classical, jazz, rock - whatever you are looking for. There are a lot of theatres, cinemas, museums, art galleries, libraries to visit as well as big shopping malls where you can buy any goods you need.

Big cities are beautiful. They look modern with their tall buildings, interesting architecture and design. City dwellers are sociable and communicative. I find the city an easy place to make friends in. In fact, in a big city you have a much wider range of people to choose from and to make friends with.

I'd rather quote Samuel Johnson's words, who said, "When a man is tired of London, he is tired of life." To my mind it is true. If you are tired of fun, pleasure, comfort and excitement a big city offers you, you are either tired of life or, most probably, you need some relaxing break in a small town or in the country for a change (для разнообразия).


Intention – намерение, цель, стремление


Country

adv

disadv

  1. Clean air

  2. Good neighbours

  3. U r close to nature

  4. Crime level is lower

  5. People r friendlier

  6. Lots of space

  1. Dull

  2. Absence of entertainment

  3. Unemployment

  4. Little choice of goods

  5. It is difficult to find friends of interests

  6. No beautiful huge buildings





Town/city

adv

disadv

  1. Well-paid job

  2. Lots of shopping malls

  3. Entertainment

  4. Good choice of finding friends

  5. Anonymous

  6. elegant architecture


  1. noisy neighbours

  2. polluted air, water

  3. traffic jams

  4. car crashes and accidents

  5. exorbitant rent




Different types of (British) houses

There are many different types of housing in Britain, ranging from the traditional thatched country cottage to flats in the centre of towns, Houses are often described by the period in which they were built (for example, Georgian, Victorian, post-war, etc) and whether they are terraced. semi-detached or detached. As well as preferring houses to flats, for many people a garden is also an important consideration.

Now I'd like to tell you about terraced houses. They are usually found in inner cities. They were often built by industries to house their workers near the factories. They are built in long rows where each house is attached to the ones on either side. They are often known as ""back to backs". In recent years many terraced houses have been renovated: central heating has been added and other improvements made. Such houses even could be with outside toilet and no bath before.

Semi-detached houseswere built when British towns and cities expanded into suburbs. Each house is part of a pair and is joined on one side to its partner. The semi usually has a small back and front garden, three bedrooms and a small bathroom. It is the most popular type of house in Britain алаcould be called the home of "Mr and Mrs Average".

The detached housestands by itself, usually with a garden all around it. These houses are much more expensive than semis and are often owned by professional people. Most detached houses are to be found in affluent suburbs on in the "green belt" - strip of protected open countryside around a city, where no industrial development are allowed. Some large cities (for example London) also have a "commuter belt" - so called because the professionals who live there travel every day to work into the city by train or car. Some commuters travel up to 3 or 4 hours a day to get from their homes to the inner city.

Britain is famous for its country cottageswhich were often built on the country estate of wealthy landowners. The workers on the estate rented the cottages from the landowner and worked on the land. Country cottages have low ceilings and sometimes a thatched roof. In recent years some cottages have become second homes, bought by professionals during the economic boom of the 1980s.

In the J 950 and 1960 local councils cleared a lot of slums in the inner city areas and knocked down terraced houses in the poor areas. People were re-housed in tower blocks of flatson the outskirts of the city or in the centre of the city. In recent years local councils have tried to improve the areas around tower blocks by creating "green space", children's playgrounds and facilities for the communities to use.

As a conclusion I'd like to say that it's not important what kind of house you live in, the main idea is all the time when you come back home to find there mutual respect, understanding and support.


Slums- трущобы

Affluent - изобилие

Commuter belt- пригороднаязона

Strip –полоса

Estate –‘isteit - сословие


My room

The room I like most of all is mine. I use it as a study and a bedroom at the same time. It's very nice and cosy. There isn't much furniture in it, only the most necessary pieces of it. The built-in furniture doesn't take much space in the room. There is my bed and table in front of it. The desk has plenty of drawers where I keep my text-books, notes, pens, pencils, etc. There is a sofa on the left. And you can see a comfortable armchair in the right corner. I like to turn on the lamp, sit in the armchair and read a thrilling book.

There are some shelves with books in my room. You can see Russian and English books there. There's a big thick carpet on the floor. There are some posters with my favourite band on the wall.

I like my room very much. When my buddies come round, I always invite them into my room. It's a perfect place both for rest and work.

What concerns the view from my window, you can see the yard, where a lot of people are walking every day, the watch factory and the supermarket where I go every day for products. I wish I had the view of the lovely garden or enormous park or something like that. I dream of a new flat with more space and with breathtaking view from my window.


The house I live in

I live in the centre of the city. Our four-floored house is situated in the yards behind the watch factory. It was built many years ago, but despite this fact, it's in a very good state and it's pleasant to live in such a house.

My house is placed in a calm cozy yard. It's always quit in our yard, it has plenty of high trees and nice green bushes. I like walking here in the evening and I'm glad to live in such a comfortable place of the city, far away from busy roads, avenues and streets. I'm proud of my house, I've been living here for 8 years and I've got accustomed to it.


11 Belarusian national cuisine.

Belarusian cuisine shares the same roots with cuisines of other Eastern and Northern European countries. It is based on meat and various vegetables typical for our region.

The potato became so common in 19th century – there are over 300 potato dishes cooked in Belarus – and it is considered the main part of our national cuisine. In the Soviet Union Belarusians were called bulbashi.

The most famous potato dishes are Draniki, kolduny, babka. Potato is often used for making salads.

Among meat dishes Zrazy, cepeliny, mochanka, shkvarki are very popular.

Belorussian people also eat different soups such as muchroom soup, fish soup (uha), bean soup.

The say that we drink samagonka and krambambulya. For dessert are pancakes and different pies. I like our cuisine, I like cooking either and my favourite belorusian dish is draniki.

One of my favourite dishes is draniki. To make it you need the following ingredients: 6 potatoes, 1 egg, 2 table spoons of flour, 1 onion, salt, pepper and oil. First you peel, wash and grate potatoes and peel and chop the onion. Then you mix potatoes and onion, add the egg, flour and salt and stir well until it becomes combined. After that you heat oil in a frying pan and add potato mixture with a table spoon in the form of small flat cakes. Then you fry draniki and serve with main dishes and sour cream.


DRANIKI

One of my favourite dishes is draniki. To make it you need the following ingredients: 6 potatoes, 1 egg, 2 table spoons of flour, 1 onion, salt, pepper and oil. First you peel, wash and grate potatoes and peel and chop the onion. Then you mix potatoes and onion, add the egg, flour and salt and stir well until it becomes combined. After that you heat oil in a frying pan and add potato mixture with a table spoon in the form of small flat cakes. Then you fry draniki and serve with main dishes and sour cream.


Let's talk about national cuisine of an English-speaking country

I'd like to speak about English national cuisine. It's common knowledge that English cuisine is shaped by the country's climate, its geography and its history.

Traditional English cuisine is substantial but simple and wholesome. The English have three main meals a day. Breakfast is between 8 and 9 a.m. Lunch is a light meal or snack between 12 a.m. and 1.30 p.m. Dinner, which is sometimes called supper or tea, is the main meal of the day between 6.30 p.m. and 8 p.m. On Sundays the main meal of the day is often eaten at around 1 p.m. This meal usually consists of roast meat, Yorkshire pudding and two kinds of vegetables.

Most overseas visitors see English breakfast as the typical version of eggs, bacon, sausages, fried bread, mushrooms and baked beans, all accompanied with a cup of tea or coffee. Today, however, a typical English breakfast is normally a bowl of cereal, a slice of toast, orange juice and tea or coffee.

During the week, due to a lifestyle of often working a long distance from home, many people have a 'packed lunch' or sandwiches for lunch, with a packet of crisps, fruit and a drink.

Sunday lunch is different when the family sits together for a traditional Sunday roast. This consists of roast meat, different kinds of vegetables, always including roast potatoes with Yorkshire Pudding. The most commonly eaten joints of meat are beef, lamb or pork, chicken is also popular. Beef is accompanied by white horseradish sauce, pork by apple sauce and lamb is eaten with green mint sauce.

Traditionally dinner was similar to Sunday Lunch but today this is rarely eaten on ordinary days. Today most people in Britain prefer curry, rice or pasta for dinner. Fresh vegetables grown in England are also popular, such as peas, carrots, cabbage, onions and potatoes.

Needless to say, some traditional foods have remained English favourites. Fish and Chips is the most famous English food, after the Sunday Roast beef. This is England's traditional take-away meal.

At the same time English families today rarely eat together. People often consume junk food, often in front of the television. The diet in increasing numbers of families consists mainly of salty or sweet snack foods - chips, crisps, chocolate bars, ready-meals, microwave pizzas which can cause obesity and health problems.

Let's talk about national cuisine of an English-speaking country (5)

I'd like to tell you about English national cuisine.

They say that any cuisine depends on the country's climate, its geography and its history, English cuisine is not an exception. The English have three main meals a day: breakfast, lunch and dinner.

One of the main English dishes is pies. If we want to cook it we use flower, butter, eggs, sugar and salt. We can add jam or mushrooms, apples or other fruit. As for me, I’d like to try Yorkshire pudding.

Let's talk about national cuisine of an English-speaking country (4)

I'd like to tell you about English national cuisine.

They say that any cuisine depends on the climate, geography and history, English cuisine is not an exception. The English have three main meals a day: breakfast, lunch and dinner.

As for me, I’d like to try English apple pie.

PUDDING

In the United Kingdom pudding can be used to describe both sweet and savory (salty) dishes

The original pudding was formed by mixing various ingredients with a grain product or other binder such as butter, flour, cereal, eggs. These puddings are baked, steamed (готовнапару) or boiled.

Depending on its ingredients such a pudding may be served as a part of the main course or as a dessert.

Cooking method

Yorkshire pudding is cooked by pouring a batter made from milk (or water), flour and eggs into oiled then preheated baking pans and baked it.

A basic formula uses 1/3 cup flour and 1/3 cup of water/milk per egg.


Substantial – сытный, питательный

Wholesome – полезный


Shopping.Money

I'm going to speak about shopping, which is sometimes unites people all over the world, in my opinion. I mean that this type of activity is common to all people, no matter what country they live in. Some do it with pleasure, for others it's just a duty, but perhaps a lot depends on the economic situation in the country. When you cannot afford buying fundamental things or enough food for the family, it doesn't seem to be fun at all.

At present we cannot boast being a prosperous nation, as the living standard in Belarus is lower than that in most neighbouring countries, let alone advanced European countries. But everything is relative, of course: back in the early 90-ies it was much worse than now.

When we want to buy something, we go to a shop. Personally I go shopping once in a while to save time for my parents who work all day. When I have to shop my mother leaves a shopping list for me, and it helps me with picking up the necessary items. There are many kinds of shops in every town or city, but most of them have a food supermarket, department stores, men's and women's clothing stores, a grocery, a bakery, and a butchery.

I prefer to do my shopping at big department stores and supermarkets. They sell various goods under one roof and this is very convenient. We have only one supermarket in our town , it's "Euroopt". The self-serving system saves a lot of time, as most of the products are available over the counter. I take a basket or a cart and pick up everything I need. It doesn't take me Jong to pay for these items at the cash desk.

A department store, true to its name, is composed of many departments: ready-made clothes, fabrics, shoes, sports goods, toys, china and glass, electric appliances, cosmetics, linen, curtains, cameras, records, etc. You can buy everything you like there. There are also escalators in big stores, which take customers to different floors. The things for sale are on the counters so that they can be easily seen. In the women's clothing department you can find dresses, costumes, blouses, skirts, coats, beautiful underwear and many other things. In the men's clothes department you can choose suits, trousers, overcoats, ties, etc. шthe knitwear department one can buy sweaters, cardigans, short-sleeved and long-sleeved pullovers, woolen jackets. In the perfumery they sell powder, lipstick, lotion, and shampoos. Unfortunately we have no such department stores in our town.

There are some small shops or stalls in our town that are popular as well. At the butcher's there is a wide choice of meat and poultry. At the bakery you buy brown and white bread, rolls, biscuits. Another shop people frequently go to is the greengrocery, which is stocked by cabbage, potatoes, onions, beetroots, green peas, and what not. If you

call round at a dairy you can buy milk, cream, cheese, butter, and many other products.

The methods of shopping may vary. It may be a self-service shop. If it is not a self-service shop, and most of small shops are not, the shop-assistant helps customers in finding what he wants. You pay money to the cashier and he gives you back the change and the receipt. In a stall or market you only give your money to a shop assistant and he gives you what you want.

If yon love shopping, you can love it even more by saving money in the process. Learning how to live within a budget is one of the best skills you can develop. There are a number of ways you can save money when you do shopping.

I like to go shopping very much. It is one of the best ways to get rid of daily stress.

(To tell the truth, shopping is not my cup of tea, as they say.)

Shopping for 4!
Going shopping is a part of everyday life. For some people it's a pleasant pastime while for others it's an everyday routine. At the same time whether people like shopping or not they have to do this because it's a necessity. As for me, i don't like shopping as it's dull/ As for me I like shopping because I can find smth very nice and pleasant.

Shopping

I’d like to tell you about shopping which unites people all over the world. Some do it with pleasure, for others it is just a duty. Personally I go shopping every weekends but I don’t really like it/ every day because I like it, I think it is the betst way to get rid of daily life.


LEISURETIME № 14 – искать в учебнике новом(зеленом, есть досуг в Беларуси, и отдельно про досуг статьи)

The Problem of Free Time Activities

(Может и сгодится, билет читать надо и смотреть, чего в вопросах хотят)

Schoolchildren usually do not have much free time, because they have to go to school and do their homework. Still, you have to relax sometime. To my mind, it is possible to divide all teenagers into two groups: formal and informal. Teenagers from formal groups generally spend their leisure time doing sports, shopping or going out with friends, sightseeing and travelling, watching TV or listening to music. They may have parties sometimes or navigate the internet.

In big cities some teenagers from informal groups (e.g. skinheads) gather in gangs. They drink alcohol, fight, break everything they see, and write on walls. They practice vandalism. I think, they have problems with free time activities and usually get into trouble. I find their behavior absolutely provocative and terribly disgraceful.

Some other teens prefer to spend a lot of time indoors because they are TV addicts or fond of computer games. Some of them like to be alone because they are keen on reading or watching videos. I do not like this kind of pastime. It makes you passive. I prefer outdoor activities. I enjoy being with other people. There are lots of interesting things for us to do.

Most teenagers in Belarus like going out with their friends or just talking. There are lots of topics for discussion. For instance, my friend likes Tolkien’s novels. He often tells us about the adventures of the characters from his novels.

Plenty of teens are fond of listening to music. They often find information about music bands or their favourite singers on different websites, it can be pictures and lyrics as well.

There are lots of sport fans as well. My friend and I like to play basketball and volleyball. In summer we play beach volleyball, badminton, and table-tennis. But I wouldn’t like to join a sport team. I want to play just for fun, not to become a champion. Some teens spend a lot of time with their pets. One of my friend trains a puppy in his free time.

I know that in Britain and in USA many teenagers earn money after school or during vacations. They work for their pocket money or to support their families. They can work in local pubs, shops, supermarkets. If I could, I would work too, though we can find fewer job opportunities in Belarus. I could be a babysitter or deliver letters. It is great to acquire some working experience while you are still at school. I believe, I could even work abroad.

Belarusian traditions

Throughout many centuries of history, the Belarusian people created its unique and original culture. Traditional folk customs and rites are closely connected with Christian traditions. According to them Christmas and Easter are the main religious holidays, annually celebrated by millions of believers all over the country. In Belarus, all the Christian holidays are celebrated twice: by the Catholic and Orthodox religious calendars.

Along with Christian holidays, such folk festivities of pagan origin as Kupalle and Maslenitsa are widely celebrated in Belarus. Folk games and traditional ceremonies are part of them. One of the main traditions of Kupalle is search for the mythic paparats-kvetka (fern flower).Those, who find it, will enjoy good luck for the whole year; all their wishes will come true. Maslenitsa is a ceremony of meeting of two seasons; it sees off winter and meets spring.Popular festivals of folk music, dancing and national costumes are organized at the time of Maslenitsa.

New Year is widely celebrated all over the country. Preparations to this holiday start a couple of weeks before. The towns and cities of Belarus put on holiday decorations and illumination, New Year trees in the squares add to the holiday mood. The culmination of the holiday is the December 31— January 1 night, when various concerts and open-air celebrations take place. January 1 is an official holiday.

The Belarusian people are proud of the country's past and its traditional culture. The medieval festival "The White Castle" is arranged every spring in Minsk. The spectators can admire performances in costume, combats of knights and ancient music. Every summer, in Belarusian castles (in Lida, Mir, Novogrudok, Nesvizh, etc.) knights' tournaments and international medieval festivals take place.They attract spectators and participants from many countries of the world. During several days, you will have a chance to plunge into romantic atmosphere of the Middle Ages, to watch a reconstruction of historic events, to become an apprentice of a craftsman, enjoy medieval music and try on knights' armor or ladies' magnificent dresses.

Customs and Traditions of Great Britain. Holidays.

So many countries so many customs, an English proverb says.

The English are a nation of stay-at-homes. 'There is no place like home' an Englishman says ' My house is my castle'.It is true that English people prefer small houses, built for one family. The fireplace is the focus of the English home. They like to sit round the fire exchanging the day's experience.

The love of gardensis deep-rooted in British people. The British like growing plants in a window-box outside the kitchen or in the garden near the house. They love roses very much.

English are proud of their traditions and carefully keep them up as I know all English people celebrate Christmason the 25th of December. It is the time when all the family gets together round the Christmas tree decorated with toys and sweets. Little children believe that when they are asleep Santa Claus comes with a big bag of toys. They often hang up large stockings for the presents.

Another best-loved holiday is St. Valentine's Day. It is celebrated on the 14th of February. It is the day of sending and giving presents to those you love.

Easteris a church holiday. Despite of it people widely celebrate it. One tradition is very popular on this holiday. Decoratedeggs and candies are hidden in the yards and little children believe that the Easter rabbit comes and leaves eggsfor them.

Halloweenis another national holiday. It is celebrated on the 31 of November. Children usually dress up in Halloween costumes and masks over their faces. They go out into the streets to beg. People give them sweets, cookies and apples.

There are some more bank holidays: Easter Monday, Boxing Day.There is also a Pancake Day, April's Fool Day, Mother's Day.

As I have already said so many countries so many customs.


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So many countries so many customs, an English proverb says.English are proud of their traditions and carefully keep them up.

English people celebrate Christmas on the 25th of December. It is the time when all the family gets together round the Christmas tree decorated with toys and sweets.

St. Valentine's Day is celebrated on the 14th of February. It is the day of sending and giving presents to those you love.

They celebrate Easter, Halloween, April's Fool Day, Mother's Day and others.

As I have already said so many countries so many customs.


MASSMEDIA № 17 – в электронке только смотрите дальше там фотки

Keeping Fit

Our health depends on our life.

Most people are busy working, pupils are busy studying, but they always find time to relax and enjoy themselves. Usually we spend our spare time in many different ways. Everyone has his own way of relaxing. But the most popular way is going in for sports.

Sport helps people to maintain good health and enjoy life, to stay in good shape, keep them fit and makes them more organized and better disciplined in their daily life.

Physical culture and sports in our country are part of our cultural and public life. It is very popular with young people, they are particularly keen on soccer, volleyball, track and field in summer, skiing and ice-hockey in winter, among some of them weightlifting, boxing, every kind shooting are favourite.

Sport is also paid great attention to in our schools, colleges, and universities. You can hardly find a school without a gym or a sports ground. Every city and town has a few stadiums, swimming pools, amateur club and keep-fit centres where people go in for aerobics, yoga, body-building, swimming, skating, jogging.

Not everyone who enjoys sporting events like to participate in them. Thousands of people prefer to be spectator attending the games and supporting their favourite team at the stadiums or watch the competitions on TV.

From time to time competitions in volleyball are held at our school, but some boys and girls don’t want to take an active part in them. They don’t believe that sport is very necessary. They think that sport may stand in the way of other important things. They are of course, wrong, because team games develop character and mind and quick thinking. And English proverb says, «In sports and journeys men are known».

Everyone knows that getting fit is good for you – but why is it good and what are the ways to be fit?

Getting in shape has never been more popular. For millions of people around the world, regular exercises is now part of their daily lives. Some jog, cycle and swim, while others prefer to workout (exercise) in gyms, do aerobics or play team sports. They are part of the worldwide fitness revolution, which has taken place over the last 20 years. And there are several reasons for it. Fit people live longer, than unfit people, especially those who smoke and drink. People now accept that taking regular exercise is a great way to become and stay healthy.

Another reason for the fitness boom is youth and beauty. Men and women try their best to look as young and attractive as possible. And fit people not only feel good they look good too.


Sport in our life (Healthy style of fife) № 3

They say, "Health is above wealth." One of the first our duties is to keep our bodies in perfect condition.

There are certain laws of health and they are very simple.

When you ask people why they spend so much time, effort, and sometimes money doing sports they will talk about feeling fit, sleeping better, the chance of living a more active life, meeting people with similar interests and the team spirit.

Thousands of ordinary people devote their spare time to going in for sports. They play indoor and outdoor games: volleyball, basketball, table tennis, hockey.

There are different sporting societies, clubs and complexes in our republic. The most famous of them are the Olympic complexes «Raubichi», «Staiki», «Dinamo» stadium. They are used for international and world competitions. They were built for the 22ndOlympic Games which took place in 1980.

As for me, I like sports too. When I was a junior pupil I liked swimming, so I went to the swimming pool every day. Now I play table tennis twice a week. From time to time I play volleyball or football.

To sum up, I’d like to say if you want to keep fit you must go in for sports because sport makes people strong, healthy and optimistic.

FASHION № 20

We all pay attention to fashion .But what is? Everybody understands it in his own way . Generally , this is our appearance that helps us to be attractive and to differ from others. – СОРИ, вэлектронке темыу меня нет.











TRAVELLINGAND T0URISM

Тема на экзамене называется Travelling and tourism, поэтому к этому тексту прибавьте еще один – 2 вида туризма из учебника.

22. Environmental issues

What can we do for the environment EVERY DAY?

1. People say that our planet is in danger. Do you share this opinion?

The protection of the environment is now the question of life or death on the Earth. There are many problems which threaten our natural environment.  Water and soil pollution, resource and ozone depletion, high level of radiation and acid rains, global warming, deforestation, littering are among the most serious ones. In such conditions we must do our best to save our planet, our lives.

2. What do you think people should do to protect the environment?

There is a good formula of 4 Rs. It is Reduce, Reuse and Recycle. We can reduce the usage of electricity and drinking water. We must make an effort to recycle such things as plastic bottles, metal, paper, glass. To sum it up, we should realize that we are all responsible for what’s happening around us.

3. What would you ask your British friend about measures (мерах) that are taken to protect the environment in Britain?

1. What laws are passed in Britain to protect the environment?

2. Are there educational programs on TV that educate people how to help our planet?

3. People in Britain are concerned about the environment, aren’t they?

4.  Are there many environmental groups in Great Britain?

4. A friend of yours wants to develop a program to protect the city where he lives. Give him a piece of advice

If I were him I would suggest an educational program that would teach people to save energy, not to litter, try to limit the use of cars, save electric power and water, recycle paper, glass, plastic.

I could also try set up an environmental group. We could hold meetings, and draw people’s attention to environmental problems in the city.

5. Green School of the Year contest is held in the country and you want your school to enter it. Give ideas for some green events.

What about organizing a concert and collecting money to help to save some endangered animals or national parks.

Why not get together and clean the forest near our town from litter.

I suggest that we should shoot a video clip about endangered species in our region and show it on local TV.




Weather and climate (5)

Weather is the mix of events that happen each day in our atmosphere, including temperature, rainfall and humidity. But it is not the same everywhere.

Climate controls the weather where you live. It has a very important influence on plants, animals and humans. Weather has also much impact on people’s health and moods.

As for me, I don’t depend on weather, In my opinion a man should create his mood himself.


A Glimpse of Belarus The Republic of Belarus is situated in the centre of Europe in the extreme western part: of the East-European Plain within the basins of the Dnieper, the Western Dvina and the Upper Neman it. borders on Poland in the west the Baltic states - Lithuania and Latvia - in the north-west, on the Russian Federation in the east and on Ukraine in the south, Belarus is situated at the crossroads of trade routes from west to east, and from north to south,

Belarus occupies the territory of 207, 6 thousand square kilometres, it's quite a compact country. It stretches for 560 kilometres from north to south and for 650 kilometres from west to east. By the size of its territory, Belarus is the 13th among the European countries and the 5th among the CIS countries. The area of Belarus is slightly smaller than that of Great Britain, its population is about 10,3 million people, 78% of whom are Belarusians, Representatives of more than 100 ethnic groups live in Belarus, Most people in Belarus about 64% live in towns and cities

Belarus is situated on a plain rising to hills, the highest of which is Dzierzhinsky Hill reaching 350 metres above the sea level. About twenty thousand rivers arid streams run in all directions across the country. Their distinctive feature is that half of them flow into the Baltic Sea, the other half into the Biack Sea. Seven of them are more than 500 kilometres long each. They are the Dnieper, the Neman, the Western Dvina, the Pripyat, the Berezina,, the Sozh and the Viiia,

Belarus is a lake country. There are about 10,800 lakes here. The takes are particularly numerous in the north. The largest is Lake Naroch. its surface stretches for 80 square kilometres. The lakes are noted for their great depth, transparent waters and beautiful scenery around them.

The swamps of Belarus deserve separate mention. They are even entered in the Guinness Book of Records. These unique natural ecosystems take up nearly a quarter of the country. In scale and diversity of life there are no equal places to them in Europe,

The real treasure of Belarus lies in its forests. Large and small, old and new, they cover a third of the country. Their canopy shelters a multitude of animals and birds National parks and reserves - Belovezhskaya Pushcha, Braslavsky and Narochansky National Parks, Berezinsky Reserve and others - have been created to ensure the best protection for the rarest examples of Beiarusian nature. Here one can enjoy a great diversity of flora and fauna, some of which have survived only in Belarus.

The natural environment of Belarus is incredibly rich and varied, The beauty of its natural landscapes continues to charm its inhabitants and visitors.

The climate of Belarus is moderate continental with mild and humid winters»warm summers and rainy days in autumn. The average temperature in January is minus 5-8 degrees Celsius and that in July is plus 20 °C, Even though Belarus is a land-iocked country, its climate is strongly

influenced by the Baltic Ssa,

Political system in Belarus Belarus is a presidential republic, governed by a president and the National Assembly. The term for each presidency is five years. Under the 1994 constitution, the president could serve for only two terms as president, but a change in the constitution in 2004 eliminated term limits. Alexander Lukashenko has been the president of Belarus since 1994. 

The National Assembly is a bicameral parliamentincludingthe 110-member House of Representatives and the 64-member Council of the Republic.The House of Representativeshas the power to appoint the prime minister, make constitutional amendments, make suggestions on foreign and domestic policy. The Council of the Republichas the power to select various government officials, accept or reject the bills passed by the House of Representatives. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4f/Belarus-Minsk-House_of_Government_and_Vladimir_Lenin_Monument_%28perspective_corrected%29.jpg/220px-Belarus-Minsk-House_of_Government_and_Vladimir_Lenin_Monument_%28perspective_corrected%29.jpg

The government includes the Supreme Court and the Constitutional Court, which deals with specific issues related to constitutional and business law. There also some political parties such as Communist Party of Belarus, Agrarian Party of Belarus. Liberal Democratic Party of Belarus and others.

http://bits.wikimedia.org/static-1.21wmf11/skins/common/images/magnify-clip.pngHouse of Government in Minsk, with a statue of Vladimir Lenin in the foreground

Дополнительные вопросы по теме:

  1. How many states does GB consist of?

  2. What are these states? Show them on the map, please

  3. What are the main rivers of GB?

  4. What are the capitals of the United Kingdom’s states? Show them on the map, please

  5. What do you know about royal family?

  6. What is the name of the queen? – (Elizabeth the 2nd (SECOND))

  7. What is the capital of England? And the flower symbol? – London, rose

  8. --- Scotland? – Edinburgh, thistle

  9. --- Wales? - Cardiff - daffodil

  10. --- Northern Ireland? - Belfast, shamrock


25. Great Britain


  1. 1. Let’s talk about Britain. What do you know about the country?


(Вспоминаем текст, который уже рассказывали, могу спросить его снова или любую из частей текста, например, tell me please about the climate of GB, ну и конечно, повторите карту, государства соединенного королевства и их столицы,

добавляем еще символы-цветы:

- The national emblem of England is the Rose. It symbolizes the end of the Wars of the Roses.

The national flower of Scotland is the thistle. The thistle has been a Scottish symbol for more than 500 years. It was found on ancient coins and coats of arms.

The national flower of Wales is the daffodil, which is traditionally worn on St. David’s Day

The national flower of Northern Ireland is the shamrock, a three-leaved plant similar to clover. It is a symbol of trinity).

2. Would you like to visit Britain? Why (not)?


Yes, of course. The UK has not only nice floral symbols but also plenty of landmarks, for example Big Ben, Trafalgar square, Buckingham Palace, St. Paul’s Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Stonehenge and others. Moreover it is famous for Fish and Chips, Red Buses, the Beatles, football teams, Sherlock Homes, Shakespeare and for one of the best theatres in the world! Personally, I’d like to visit London, as it is one of the largest cities in the world. About 7 million people live here. London is an old city. It is more than 2. 000 years old!

3. What would you like to ask a British teenager about Britain?


  1. Which area is proud of its tennis?

  2. What legend is Scotland famous for?

  3. Which part of the UK will you recommend to visit first?

  4. Is Elizabeth the second the queen of Jamaica?

4. Give me a piece of advice on what sights to see in London.

You can go to the Royal Albert Hall which is a very large concert hall where the best world musicians perform classical music.

Another place is the Victoria and Albert Museum (V & A) with its rich collections of paintings and other works of art. The family life of Queen Victoria touched people's hearts. But this is not the only reason why Queen Victoria became very popular. During her reign Britain became a rich industrial country with a developed trade, an empire with a lot of colonies.

The Tower of London was a fortress, a castle, a prison and a zoo. Now it’s the oldest museum in London, it was built about 2000 years ago.

  1. 5. Do British traditions and customs differ from Belarusian ones?

It is not a secret that every nation and every country has its own customs and tradition. British nation, foe example, is considered to be the most conservative in Europe. The best examples are their queen, money system, their weights and measures. ... (продолжнение внизу).


Great Britain (1 вопрос билета)


1. General The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is situated on the British Isles. It consists of four parts: England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. England, Wales and Scotland occupy the territory of Great Britain. Northern Ireland is situated in the northern part of Ireland. The population is over 55 million. About 80% of the population is urban. The capital of the country is London.

2. Geographical position. The surface of Great Britain varies greatly. The northern and western part of the country is mountains and is called the Highlands. All the rest (south, east and centre) is a vast plain which is called the Lowlands. The mountains are not very high. The rivers are not long. The most important of them are the Severn and the Thames. There are many beautiful lakes in the mountainous parts of the country.

3. Climate The mountains, the Atlantic Ocean and the warm waters of the Gulf Stream influence the climate of Great Britain. The weather in GB is very changeable. A fine morning can change into a wet afternoon and evening. The English people say: "Other countries have a climate; in England we have weather."

4. National economy Great Britain is a highly developed industrial country. It is known as one of the world's largest producers and exporters of machinery and electronics, aircraft and navigation equipment. One of the chief industries of the country is shipbuilding.

Great Britain is a country with old cultural traditions and customs. The most famous educational centers are Oxford and Cambridge universities. They are considered to be the intellectual centres of Europe. The education is not free, it is very expensive.

5. Political system The United Kingdom is a monarchy and the Queen is the head of state. But in practice it is ruled by the elected government with a Prime Minister at the head. The British Parliament consists of two chambers: the House of Lords and the House of Commons. There are three main political parties in Great Britain: Conservative, Labour and Liberal Democrat.

6.In general, I’d like to say that GB is a mighty empire and if you want to consider yourself a well-educated person you must see it with your own eyes.

4 баллов

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is situated on the British Isles. It consists of four parts: England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland.

The weather in GB is very changeable. It is a highly developed industrial country.

Great Britain is famous for Oxford and Cambridge universities..

The Queen is the head of state, but in practice it is ruled by a Prime Minister.

I’d like to see Great Britain with my own eyes.



British Traditions and Customs(5 вопросбилета)















One of most interesting English traditions is the Boat Race, which takes place on the river Thames. A boat with a team from Oxford University and one with a team from Cambridge University hold a race.

Another tradition is the holiday called Bonfire Night. On the 5th of November, 1605 a man called Guy Fawkes planned to blow up the Houses of Parliament where the king James the 1st was to open Parliament on that day. But Guy Fawkes was unable to realize his plan and was caught and later, hanged. The British still remember that Guy Fawkes' Night. It is another name for this holiday.

 



Не секрет, что каждая нация и страна имеет свои собственные обычаи и традиции. Британская нация, как полагают, является самой консервативной в Европе. Лучший пример — их королева, парламентская монархия, денежная система, их система мер.

Одной из самых интересных англ. традиций является состязания по гребле, которые проходят на реке Темза. Лодка с командой от Оксфордского университета и вторая лодка с командой от университета Кембриджа плывут наперегонки.

Другая традиция — это праздник, который называется Ночь костра. 5 ноября 1605 года человек по имени Гай Фокс планировал взорвать здание парламента, где король Джеймс I должен был в тот день открыть заседание парламента. Но Гаю Фоксу не удалось совершить задуманное, он был пойман и позже повешен. Британцы все еще помнят ту ночь Гая Фокса. Это другое название этого праздника.





 Vocabulary:



tobeconsidered— считаться, рассматриваться как
customs— традиции
proud— гордый
tokeep(pastkept, p.p. kept) up— поддерживать, хранить
tocrown— короновать
folk— народный (относящийся к обычаям, традициям простого народа)
towear(pastwore, p.p. worn) — одевать, носить
BoatRace— лодочные гонки
event— событие
countryside— сельская местность
BonfireNight— Ночь костров
toblowup— взорвать, подорвать
tocatch(caught) — схватить, арестовать
tohang(pasthung, p.p. hung) — повесить
competition— соревнование




PS Темы, помеченные «4», «5» - баллов недостаточно рассказать только этот кусочек, в этом году правила сдачи экзамена построже, так как вы уже вторые его сдаете, не первопроходцы)) поэтому будьте внимательны, готовьтесь по билетам, по вопросам, которые там указаны, все эти тексты – это как правило ответ лишь на один вопрос – первый, на 2, 3 вопросы у вас должен быть ответ в одно предложение, или ответ – да/нет как минимум для того, чтобы рассчитывать на отметку «4», «5» баллов.